This is a list of courses with the subject code LAW. For more information, see College of Law in the catalog.
LAW:4800 Undergraduate Clinical Law Internship Program arr.
Students learn about law school experience and legal careers through intensive training in a range of lawyering skills and collaboration with teams of law students on actual client matters; students enrolled in the Center for Environmental Law and Policy work with law students representing a nonprofit or other entity using nonlitigation means to advance social or economic justice; students enrolled in the Federal Criminal Defense Clinic work as investigators with law students representing indigent criminal defendants in the Northern District of Iowa; involves weekly seminars and team supervision, biweekly undergraduate supervision meetings.
LAW:8006 Civil Procedure 4 s.h.
Procedure before trial; commencement of a suit; subject matter jurisdiction; jurisdiction over the person and venue; pleadings, motion practice, including summary judgment, simple joinder of parties and claims in determining scope and size of the lawsuit; pretrial discovery procedures, the trial, claim and issue preclusion.
LAW:8010 Constitutional Law I 3 s.h.
Constitutional allocation of governmental powers; doctrine of judicial review and nature of judicial function in constitutional cases; relationships among several branches of national government; the federal system, including powers delegated to national government, powers reserved to states, and intergovernmental immunities; role of judicial process in structuring limits within which society operates; institutional development of legal system, relationship among institutions within the system.
LAW:8017 Contracts 4 s.h.
Law that governs the otherwise unregulated sector of the economy and concerns the making and enforcement of promises, usually as part of a bargain; basics-formation of agreements, consideration, invalidating causes, parol evidence and interpretation, conditions, remedies; roles of promises and promissory exchanges in a modern economy; limitations the law places on freedom of contract.
LAW:8022 Criminal Law 3 s.h.
Basic understanding of substantive criminal law; underlying premises of and justifications for criminal law; emphasis on general doctrines that dictate the minimum elements necessary to impose criminal liability, essential requirements of culpable conduct (an actus reus, or guilty act), blameworthy mental state (a mens rea or guilty mind); rape, homicide, causation, attempt, conspiracy, accomplice liability; various defenses to criminality, such as self-defense, duress, intoxication, insanity, diminished capacity.
LAW:8026 Introduction to Law and Legal Reasoning 1 s.h.
Basic concepts and intellectual skills necessary for understanding the first-year curriculum.
LAW:8027 Introduction to Legal Theory and Perspectives on the Law 1 s.h.
Introduction to foundational legal theories and perspectives on the law necessary for understanding the law and law school curriculum.
LAW:8028 Advanced Bar Preparation 3 s.h.
Extended bar preparation for third-year law students that supplements regular bar exam course; provides strong conceptual understanding of the most highly tested principles of law across three or four subjects; flexible and robust analytical framework to solve bar exam problems from multiple choice to essay questions; preparation to learn skills to study for bar exam following law school graduation.
LAW:8032 Legal Analysis Writing and Research I 2 s.h.
Structured development of effective skills in legal analysis, writing, and research; first of a two-semester sequence.
LAW:8033 Legal Analysis Writing and Research II 3 s.h.
Structured development of effective skills in legal analysis, writing, and research; second of a two-semester sequence. Prerequisites: LAW:8032.
LAW:8037 Property 4 s.h.
Concept of private property as one of legal system's basic foundations; development of Anglo-American property law with changing currents of economic, social, political thought; understanding decision-making by courts in common-law tradition, legislative enactments; origins of property rights; possession and ownership; capacity of property law to recognize a wide range of interest configurations; ease and reliability in conveyance of property interests commercially, gratuitously; function of public recording; role of adverse possession, long-standing property relationships; responsiveness of property law to social change illustrated by modern reforms in landlord-tenant act.
LAW:8046 Torts 4 s.h.
Development of tort principles; civil responsibility for harms to tangible personal and property interests; roles of legislatures, judges, juries; intentional harms, negligence, and strict liability considered from perspectives of jurisprudence, economics, and moral philosophy.
LAW:8105 Administrative Law 3 s.h.
Formal and informal procedures, processes, and functions of state and federal administrative agencies; legislative, executive, and judicial control of their actions; nature and definition of administrative agencies; permissible delegation of authority to administrative agencies; scope of agency authority; agencies' right to obtain information from members of the public; citizens' right to obtain information in agencies' possession; definition and types of administrative rules; rule-making procedure; agency discretion to make law by rule or adjudication; right to a trial-type hearing before an agency; parties' specific rights in an administrative hearing, including notice, open or closed hearing, right to counsel, evidence, nature and exclusivity of the record; agency decision-making process, including role of hearing officers, separation of functions and bias of decision makers, nature of opinion required; judicial review of administrative action, including reviewability of agency action, primary jurisdiction of agencies, exhaustion of administrative remedies, standing, scope of judicial review, mechanics of judicial review.
LAW:8121 Advanced Legal Research Methods in Specialized Subjects 1 s.h.
Legal research methods in specific legal practice and research areas; specific topic rotates each year (litigation and ADR legal research, business and tax legal research, federal legislative history legal research, legal history research); students work with real-world examples to improve research skills related to a particular legal subject.
LAW:8123 Advanced Legal Research 2 s.h.
Builds on LAW:8032 and LAW:8033; in-depth exploration of American legal resources; current print and electronic resources that help students develop better, more efficient search techniques and select the most effective formats for their research; opportunity to review the basic sources of legal information, use varied techniques to access legal information, develop personal strategies for managing information; advanced training in LEXIS, WESTLAW, the internet; nonlegal information sources important to the legal community.
LAW:8125 State Legal Research 1 s.h.
Legal resources available for a particular state; exploration of current print and electronic resources, particularly low-cost electronic resources such as FastCase and the internet are explored for purposes of developing better, more efficient search techniques; selection of the most effective formats for research; sources of legal information; techniques for accessing legal information.
LAW:8146 Antitrust Law 3 s.h.
Laws dealing with restraints of trade, monopolization and mergers; history of these laws and their development in the courts; current doctrine and its underlying legal and economic theories; analytical tools of trade: sufficiency of economic efficiency as the measure of justice.
LAW:8153 Applied Evidence 2 s.h.
Opportunities to apply the rules of evidence; use of mock case problems presenting evidentiary issues that attorneys in real practice would address by filing motions in limine; students are enabled to more fully comprehend the reasoning and rationale behind the rules, and appreciate the intricacies of applying the rules to a set of facts; focus on pretrial evidentiary litigation and specific rules of evidence. Prerequisites: LAW:8460.
LAW:8158 Arbitration Principles and Practice 2-3 s.h.
Introduction to law of arbitration and essential skills and procedures involved in its practice; role of arbitration in modern conflict resolution in various settings in which it is used; conceptual framework and explanatory theories for analysis of issues frequently encountered in arbitration; statutory and contractual grounds for arbitration (e.g., labor relations, employment, consumer and commercial transactions); development of skills and understanding of procedure through use of problems and exercises simulating common arbitration scenarios in which students participate as lawyers, arbitrators, and parties.
LAW:8164 Art, Law, and Ethics 3 s.h.
How law and ethics apply to individuals and institutions concerned with visual arts. Same as MUSM:4045.
LAW:8166 Art Law and the Business of Art 2 s.h.
Overview of significant legal, ethical, and business issues in the art market.
LAW:8186 Bankruptcy 3-4 s.h.
Students study the rights of individuals and entities under the federal bankruptcy laws from the perspective of both debtors and creditors; there are three types of bankruptcy proceedings—liquidation bankruptcy for consumers and businesses (Chapter 7), consumer reorganization, known as "wage earner's plans" (Chapter 13), and business reorganization (Chapter 11); students survey foundational topics relevant to all these forms of bankruptcy—in general, equal weight given to both consumer and business bankruptcies; attention given to some of the intricacies of business reorganizations towards the end of the course.
LAW:8189 Banking Law 2 s.h.
Overview of various bank and nonbank financial institutions (including national banks and state banks) and federal regulation of these institutions; examination of goals and policies behind bank and nonbank financial institution regulations to determine whether these goals and policies are achieved by the regulations; attention given to recent developments in regulation of bank and nonbank financial institutions.
LAW:8194 Basic Federal Income Taxation 3-4 s.h.
Operation, policies, principles of federal income tax, including gross income, deductions, property dispositions, tax accounting, assignment of income among family members, time value of money, leveraging.
LAW:8216 Civil Procedure in Pre-Trial Theory and Practice arr.
The law of pleadings and other pretrial matters presented in LAW:8006; hypothetical case developed from interview to pleading to early pretrial stages; experience drafting relevant pleadings and motions. Prerequisites: LAW:8006.
LAW:8218 Civil Rights Law 3 s.h.
Civil rights law; constitutional litigation brought under Section 1983 to enforce the 4th, 8th, and 14th Amendments, specifically exploring prisoners' rights, police abuse, and substantive Due Process claims; examination of Reconstruction Era civil rights statutes (Sections 1981 and 1982) and modern federal statutes prohibiting discrimination such as Title VII and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA); cutting-edge civil rights issues such as affirmative action, sexual harassment, and racial identity; interpretive and strategic challenges that arise in civil rights litigation.
LAW:8224 Client Counseling 1-2 s.h.
Immersion in practice skills fundamental to any attorney-client relationship—interviewing and counseling; exploration of critical unseen factors which impact interviewing and counseling (e.g., self-awareness, cultural competence, bias, beliefs about the role of the lawyer in an attorney-client relationship); introduction and critique of three models of representation including traditional or regnant lawyering, client-centered lawyering, and rebellious or democratic lawyering.
LAW:8230 Commercial Leasing 3 s.h.
Commercial leasing is perhaps the most important part of the real estate business, and more lawyers practice in the area of commercial leasing than any other real estate area; focus on legal doctrine and foundational skills related to a commercial leasing legal practice. Prerequisites: LAW:8017 and LAW:8037.
LAW:8237 Comparative Corporate Governance 2 s.h.
Today's global economy has resulted in a proliferation of multi-national corporations, where frequently the parent corporation is governed by the law of one country, and one or more subsidiaries are governed by the laws of other countries; comparative assessment of advantages and disadvantages to incorporating in a particular country; focus on corporations considering mergers, acquisitions, or joint ventures with corporations outside of their own jurisdiction; and consideration of reasons why a corporation might form a subsidiary under the law of another jurisdiction.
LAW:8241 Comparative Constitutional Law 2-3 s.h.
Comparative focus on the United States Constitution with particular emphasis on the Constitution of France and the freedom of expression in areas such as libel law, hate speech, and more; suitably tailored writing component to help students master course material while also improving their own expressive abilities.
LAW:8263 Comparative Law 2-3 s.h.
Comparative study of origins, development, and principal features of the world's main legal systems; common and civil law traditions; historical development of the main legal systems, their sources, ideologies, techniques; subjects important to international legal practice (e.g., international judicial assistance, application of foreign law in American courts; in-depth study of modern legal systems of the United States, Britain, France, Germany, Japan, Russia; introduction to other legal traditions, including preliterate tribal law, traditional Chinese and Islamic law.
LAW:8265 English Law and Literature 2-5 s.h.
Exploration of relationships between English law and English literature at historical, practical, imaginative, and theoretical levels; students read novels, short stories, plays, poems, and nonfiction works—the earliest piece written by Geoffrey Chaucer in 1387 and most recent piece written by a barrister working in London in 2018; selections intended to provide a diverse cross-section of English literary writings that engage with and are shaped by English law.
LAW:8266 English and European Legal History 2 s.h.
Introduction to English and European legal history; exploration of historical anthropology of law, and, in particular, how written law evolved from custom; development of a single European legal order (medieval England); law of marriage, sexual relations, property and women's rights in comparative perspective; continental and English law.
LAW:8267 English Law and Literature II 1 s.h.
LAW:8272 Conflict of Laws 2-3 s.h.
Examination of legal problems created when a transaction or relationship has associations with more than one state or nation; students examine questions of judicial jurisdiction (which state's or nation's courts should hear a case?), choice of law (which state's or nation's laws should determine the outcome of a case?), and enforcement of judgments (when will a state or nation enforce the judicial judgments of a different state or nation?).
LAW:8278 First Amendment: Freedom of Expression and Religion 3 s.h.
Examination of the First Amendment's legal protections for freedom of expression and religion; students pursue topics at greater depth than possible in required constitutional law courses; topics include historical roots of these freedoms to current controversies over their scope (i.e., regulation of online misinformation about public health and elections, or whether religious objectors should have exemptions from antidiscrimination laws).
LAW:8280 Constitutional Law II 3 s.h.
Limits on governmental power imposed by the national constitution for protection of individuals; protection of life, liberty, and property by due process and equal protection; freedom of expression and association; religious freedom and the guarantee against establishment of religion; 1st and 14th Amendments.
LAW:8288 Consumer Finance Law 2-3 s.h.
Consumer spending drives the economy; system of consumer finance—the way in which consumers consumption is financed; focus on empirical state of household finances, psychology and sociology of consumer finance, business of consumer finance, and regulation and political economy of consumer finance.
LAW:8301 Copyrights 3-4 s.h.
Federal law of copyrights, primarily the Copyright Act of 1976; emphasis on copyright protections affecting new technologies, such as videotape, computer hardware and software, electronic data transfer, cable television rebroadcast; ability of legal concepts to keep pace with technological developments. Recommendations: LAW:8643.
LAW:8307 Corporate Finance 1-3 s.h.
Introduction to fundamental principles of corporate finance, including financial statement analysis, valuation of corporate securities and of businesses, capital structure decisions, portfolio theory, and efficient capital markets hypothesis; focus on financial and accounting aspects of corporate decisions than with any particular body of law. Prerequisites: LAW:8331.
LAW:8309 Principles of Corporate Finance 1 s.h.
Fundamental concepts of corporate finance and accounting as accepted by the courts and applied in matters relating to securities regulation and disputes arising from mergers and acquisitions: cash versus accrual accounting; how to read and interpret schedules and disclosures contained in a company's balance sheet, income statement, and statement of cash flows; how to interpret and apply various financial ratios derived from a company's financial statements; how to understand, calculate, and apply net present value principles to evaluate investment opportunities; how to calculate equity values using the CapM equation.
LAW:8318 Corporate Governance and Control 1-4 s.h.
Principal issues in creation of appropriate governance and control systems for large publicly held corporations; questions of corporate structure, shareholder voting rights, duties of directors, derivative suits, indemnification and transfers of control viewed from perspective of Delaware's statutory and common law. Recommendations: LAW:8331.
LAW:8320 Corporate and Partnership Taxation 4 s.h.
Introduction to the federal tax treatment of business entities, analysis of statutory and regulatory materials, and discussion of significant business tax reform proposals.
LAW:8322 Corporate Taxation arr.
Influence of tax considerations on the structure of corporate transaction, from a merger to a restructuring to a securities offering; examination of primary Internal Revenue Code provisions that affect corporations and their shareholders; corporate formations, dividends, redemptions, liquidations, taxable asset and stock acquisitions, tax-free reorganizations; analysis of statutory and regulatory materials; tax reform proposals. Prerequisites: LAW:8194. Corequisites: LAW:8331.
LAW:8329 Comparative Criminal Procedure 2 s.h.
Study abroad program.
LAW:8331 Business Associations 3-4 s.h.
Structure, characteristics of both large publicly and closely held corporations; distribution of powers among management, directors, shareholders; fiduciary duties that limit those powers; enforcement of such duties by shareholder suits; may include basic principles of agency, partnership, and limited partnership law.
LAW:8342 Topics in Criminal Law Practice 1-3 s.h.
Substantive and procedural aspects of criminal law not covered in regular College of Law criminal law and criminal procedure courses; students divided into teams (prosecutors and defense attorneys); hands-on exercises designed to reflect substantive criminal law and procedure discussion; jury selection, jury instructions, pretrial motions, client and witness interviews, depositions, investigation; ethical considerations for prosecutors and defense attorneys, including prosecutorial discretion in charging decisions and conflicts of interest. Prerequisites: LAW:8022.
LAW:8348 Criminal Procedure: Adjudication 3-4 s.h.
Adjudicatory phases of the criminal justice system: indictments and the charging process, preliminary hearings, applications for release on bail and pretrial detention, processes of discovery, guilty pleas, jury selection, conduct of criminal trials, sentencing proceedings and post-trial motions, appellate review, collateral remedies; focus on constitutional rights, specifically the Fifth, Sixth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendments; statutory provisions, rules of criminal procedure.
LAW:8350 Criminal Procedure: Investigation 3-4 s.h.
Guarantees and rights of the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution against police and prosecutorial practices designed to investigate and prove criminal cases; protection against unreasonable searches and seizures, guarantee against extraction of involuntary confessions, privilege against self-incrimination constraints upon securing confessions (i.e., Miranda doctrine), due process protection against unreliably suggestive identification procedures, right to counsel, protection against inculpatory admissions and identification practices; exclusionary rules and remedies that enforce constitutional guarantees.
LAW:8362 Critical Race Theory arr.
Race relations and racial discrimination in America from perspectives of the Critical Race Theory movement (CRT); affirmative action, hate speech, queer theory, voting rights, postmodernism, liberalism, Asian-critical theory, Latin-critical theory, federal Indian law, critical white studies; critical race feminism—essentialism, motherhood, lawbreaking, employment law, sexual harassment, global issues.
LAW:8373 Secured Transactions 3 s.h.
Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code; establishment and perfection of security interests pursuant to credit sales contracts; problems focusing on the interface between Article 9 and federal bankruptcy law, Article 9 and real property security; priority disputes among collateral claimants; rules related to default and rights after default; emphasis on developing an understanding of and facility with a code-based statutory scheme.
LAW:8374 Debt Transactions 4 s.h.
Examination of laws and practices of modern lending; procedures for collection of unsecured debts including enforcement of judgments, exemptions, prejudgment remedies, fraudulent conveyances, and statutory liens; examination of secured transactions that involve both real property (mortgages) and personal property (security interests governed by Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code); equal weight given to consumer and commercial transactions.
LAW:8375 Iowa Debt Collection Law 1 s.h.
Examination of legal procedures for judicial enforcement of unsecured debts; complements secured transactions coverage of consensual liens in personal property (security interests) and Iowa real estate finance law coverage of consensual liens in real estate (mortgages). Requirements: no prior enrollment in LAW:8374.
LAW:8376 Iowa Real Estate Finance Law 1 s.h.
Examination of performance and enforcement of payment obligations secured by interests in real property (i.e., mortgages, land contracts); complements secured transactions coverage of consensual liens in personal property (security interests) and Iowa debt collection law coverage of legal procedures for judicial enforcement of unsecured debts. Requirements: no prior enrollment in LAW:8374.
LAW:8380 Entrepreneurship Law and Ethics 3 s.h.
Concepts underlying the role of lawyers in entrepreneurial decision-making and professional legal contexts; students gain a perspective of the life cycle of a startup financing deal, exposure to types of problems that arise over the course of a deal that jeopardizes its successful completion, and an opportunity to identify and reflect on ethical considerations that face modern transactional lawyers in the entrepreneurial world.
LAW:8392 Youth Law and Juvenile Courts 3 s.h.
Examine the criminal legal system, juvenile courts, and their impact on youth.
LAW:8399 Election Law 3 s.h.
The Supreme Court has long declared that the right to vote is fundamental, because it is preservative of all other rights; the right to vote in theory and practice, with focus on its relationship to racial and economic justice; what has been done and what should be done to move us closer to the ideal of political equality; proper role of unelected judges in our democracy; history of the right to vote, "one person, one vote" principle, Voting Rights Act, partisan gerrymandering, voter identification, voter registration, political parties, and campaign finance.
LAW:8415 Employment Discrimination 2-3 s.h.
Legal prohibitions against discrimination in employment on the basis of race, sex, national origin, age; focus on Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; procedural and remedial problems, elementary issues of proof.
LAW:8421 Employment Law 3-4 s.h.
Legal rights of employers and employees in private workplaces that do not have unions—which is more than 90% of work settings; hiring, minimum wage, independent contractors, termination, workplace privacy, employment-related intellectual property issues, covenants not to compete, occupational safety and health, and unemployment eligibility set into a context of historical origins, new developments, and contemporary trends.
LAW:8423 ERISA: The Basics 2 s.h.
Fundamental requirements, plans and programs covered by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) as amended; for students who are interested in employee benefit plans and roles of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), U.S. Department of Labor, U.S. Government Accountability Office, and Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation in the regulation of ERISA.
LAW:8428 British Legal System 1-2 s.h.
Taught in London Law Consortium.
LAW:8433 Environmental Law 2-3 s.h.
Role of the legal system in addressing problems of environmental disruption, with special emphasis on air, water, hazardous waste pollution.
LAW:8434 Wildlife and Habitat Conservation Law 1 s.h.
Introduction to the law of species and habitat protection, focusing on animals and plants located in the Macbride Nature Recreation Area, managed by UI WILD.
LAW:8436 Energy Law and Policy 3 s.h.
Introduction to law and policy of energy generation, transmission, and distribution; focus on public utility regulation, energy efficiency and renewable energy mandates, wholesale and retail electricity markets.
LAW:8437 Environmental Disaster Law and Policy 3 s.h.
Introduction to law and policy of environmental disasters, including climate change; complex web of United States laws related to prevention, mitigation, response, and recovery from "natural" disasters.
LAW:8444 Estate Planning 2-3 s.h.
Introduction to will drafting, use of powers of attorney, and advance directives—topics frequently taught in courses on trusts and estates; taxes that can be imposed on the transfer of money or other property by gift (gift tax), at death (estate tax), and by certain generation skipping transfers (generation-skipping tax); interrelationship of these taxes with each other and with the income tax. Prerequisites: LAW:8194. Recommendations: LAW:8981.
LAW:8452 European Union Law 2-3 s.h.
Law of the European Union; EU legal and institutional structure; role of the European Court of Justice in elaborating constitutional and administrative law for the EU on the basis of treaties and legislation; principle of free movement; progress of European integration.
LAW:8456 Survey of Iowa Law 3 s.h.
Survey of Iowa law; Iowa constitutional law, torts, criminal law, and other subjects; students gain an appreciation of unique aspects of Iowa law as well as exposure to common areas of law that attorneys practicing in Iowa are likely to encounter; may involve guest lectures from practitioners, judges, elected officials, or other visitors.
LAW:8460 Evidence 3 s.h.
Rules of evidence developed in common-law courts and under statutes; judicial notice; examination of witnesses; privilege and competence; remote and prejudicial evidence; hearsay; burden of proof and presumptions; roles of judge and jury.
LAW:8467 Family Law 3-4 s.h.
Creation, dissolution of marriage and parent-child relationships; lawyer's practical approach to family law problems combined with a broader view of how the law might treat those problems in light of findings from social and behavioral sciences.
LAW:8481 Federal Courts 3-4 s.h.
Role of the federal courts in our federal system of government; the federal courts' original and appellate jurisdiction; Supreme Court review of state courts' judgments; Congress' power to strip the federal courts of jurisdiction; development of federal common law; federal writ of habeas corpus; abstention doctrines; state sovereign immunity; federal remedies against state and local action; and Congress' power to create non-Article III adjudicative tribunals. Prerequisites: LAW:8006 and LAW:8010.
LAW:8497 Federal Criminal Practice 2 s.h.
Introduction to each step in the criminal process together with instruction in advocacy skills required for the effective practice of law; complete chronology of a typical federal criminal case, from grand jury investigation through post-trial motions; importance of strategic thinking. Prerequisites: LAW:8350.
LAW:8498 Federal Sentencing Advocacy 1-2 s.h.
Examination of federal sentencing scheme and procedures; application to a mock criminal case from which students draft a sentencing memoranda and present mock oral sentencing arguments to instructor; effective written and oral advocacy in federal sentencing proceedings.
LAW:8504 Corporate Crimes 1-3 s.h.
Introduction to corporate criminal law; black letter doctrines of corporate liability and sentencing; Department of Justice policies and practices that shape the course of corporate prosecutions; criminal statutes that are of frequent concern for corporations, including those that address false claims, securities fraud, bribery, and mail and wire fraud; developments occurring in this evolving area of law.
LAW:8513 Foreign Comparative and International Legal Research 1-2 s.h.
Treaty research, locating and identifying documents from international organizations and tribunals, legal research in selected jurisdictions outside the United States; variety of print and electronic sources; research methods in foreign and international law.
LAW:8558 Genetics and the Law 3 s.h.
Introduction to legal issues raised by genetic and genomic technologies; genetic privacy, uses and abuses of genetic testing, prenatal diagnosis, mandatory screening, genetic discrimination, regulation of genetic research, DNA banking, research on stored tissue samples, ownership of genetic material and information, and provision of genetic services including informed consent, disclosure, and duties to family members at risk for genetic disease.
LAW:8562 Health Law 2-3 s.h.
Major areas of concern in health law; tension between quality, access, costs; may include malpractice, quality control, health care financing, access (insurance, Medicare, and Medicaid), licensing, bioethics (end-of-life decisions, informed consent, surrogacy, organ transplantation).
LAW:8563 Global Health Law 3 s.h.
Examination of legal, economic, social, ethical, and political aspects of global health; emergence of global health law commencing with acknowledgment of the human right to the highest attainable standard of health; establishment of the World Health Organization; use of international treaties and other understandings to address cross-border disease threats, including bilateral and multilateral assistance to low-income countries; increasing adoption by countries, including the United States, of a standard core of public health laws.
LAW:8566 Health Care Financing and Delivery 2-3 s.h.
Major areas of concern in health law with focus on health care financing and delivery, health care organizations, fraud and abuse, and antitrust.
LAW:8567 Health Care Quality and Regulation 3 s.h.
Major areas of concern in health law with focus on quality and patient experiences; tension between quality, access, and costs; may include malpractice, quality control, licensing, and bioethics (i.e., end-of-life decisions, informed consent, surrogacy, organ transplantation).
LAW:8570 Human Rights in the World Community 1-3 s.h.
Introduction to established and developing legal rules, procedures, and enforcement mechanisms that govern protection of international human rights; liberal western and developing world notions of human rights, recent examples of human rights controversies worldwide; international human rights of women.
LAW:8575 Seminar: Approaches to Human Rights 3 s.h.
Engagement with historical events, philosophical narratives, legal cases, institutional reports, lived experiences, and theoretical works to study origins, functions, and history of the discourse on human rights; application of a systems thinking framework to events involving treatment of women, Indigenous peoples, disabled persons, racial and ethnic groups, and other disempowered social groups across cultures and throughout history; examination of writings that attempted to explain key historical events and ideas relevant to human rights. Same as RELS:6710.
LAW:8577 Immigration Law and Policy 1-3 s.h.
Legal, historical, social, philosophical, and policy foundations of immigration control; modern debate over immigration; criteria and procedures that govern admission of non-U.S. citizens to the United States for permanent residence and temporary visits; deportation criteria and processes; national security and civil liberties implications of immigration policy; refugees and political asylum; undocumented migrants; acquisition, loss, and significance of U.S. citizenship; focus on U.S. law with introduction to perspectives from comparative and international law; experience analyzing varied fact problems that require strategic decision-making and interpretation of complex statutory provisions.
LAW:8584 Insurance Law 1-3 s.h.
State regulation of insurance, adverse selection and moral hazard, risk classification and rate regulation, and insurance contracts; emphasis on life, long-term care, and disability insurance; may include health insurance, reinsurance, and other types of insurance; focus on social and economic underpinnings of insurance.
LAW:8593 Federal Indian Law arr.
Specialized body of law allocating power and authority in Indian country that has grown up around native American peoples and their reservations; sovereignty, jurisdiction, federal Indian policy, tribal self-government.
LAW:8594 Interest-Based Negotiation for Lawyers 2-3 s.h.
Theory and practice of an approach to negotiation, known as interest-based or problem-solving negotiation; focus of this negotiation model is not on positions of disputants, but interests that underlie these positions; interest-based negotiators attempts to generate options that satisfy, at least minimally, interest of all parties and can lead agreements from which all parties realize some gains; emphasis on acquisition and enhancement of skills necessary to apply this negotiation approach; in-class exercises. Requirements: no prior enrollment in LAW:8720.
LAW:8615 International Commercial Arbitration arr.
Formation and enforcement of agreements to enter arbitration in order to settle international business disputes; process of arbitrating an international business dispute; recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards.
LAW:8622 International Environmental Law 3 s.h.
Laws and institutions developed by the international community to deal with international environmental problems, including those of the atmosphere (acid rain, ozone depletion, radioactive fallout, climate change), hydrosphere (land-based sea pollution, sea-based vessel pollution, transboundary groundwater diversion), lithosphere (hazardous waste disposal, toxic pollutants, decertification), biosphere (driftnet fishing, endangered elephants, loss of tropical rainforests).
LAW:8629 Taxation of International Business Transactions 2-3 s.h.
Introduction to United States aspects of international taxation and international tax policy issues; how the U.S. taxes foreign persons on income they derive from U.S. sources; taxation of U.S. persons on their worldwide income; U.S. bilateral tax treaty network under which many of the statutory rules regarding the taxation of foreigners are modified or supplanted; solving problems that illustrate the operation of the Code and regulations. Prerequisites: LAW:8194.
LAW:8631 International Trade Law: Basic Norms and Regulations 3 s.h.
Basic norms and legal framework of international trade as expressed in the GATT/WTO regime and U.S. trade laws; issues raised by regional trade blocs such as NAFTA; controversies such as the economic and philosophical justifications for, and objections to, free trade from a variety of perspectives.
LAW:8643 Introduction to Intellectual Property 1,3-4 s.h.
Introduction to some of the most important intellectual property rules; goals and theories underlying these rules; common ways in which ideas may be protected—from basic form of protection (secrecy and trace secrecy) to exclusive rights granted over inventions (patents) and creative works (copyright), and concluding with rights related to market-based identities (trade and service marks); brief exploration of ways in which debates over intellectual property rights have permeated modern culture.
LAW:8644 Information Privacy Law 3 s.h.
Every day when we go about the world, we share bits of data about us. Who can amass that data, who can use it, and for what ends? Introduction to information privacy law and policy; law of information privacy; students address statutory, common law, regulatory, and constitutional provisions that determine how governments and private actors collect, store, process, and use information.
LAW:8645 Introduction to Quantitative and Computational Legal Reasoning 3 s.h.
Basic principles of probability, statistics, and computational reasoning (including elementary programming) for law students; emphasis on mathematically modest intuition, practical skills, and legal applications; introductory level, no mathematical background beyond high school algebra is assumed. Requirements: no substantial preexisting computer programming or statistical background.
LAW:8649 Foundations of International Law 1-3 s.h.
Introduction to fundamentals of international law; focus on aspects of international law that concern interests in the United States; survey of sources, methodology, and major doctrines of international law within framework of understanding diverse jurisprudential approaches; international law's relationship to U.S. domestic law and institutions; procedural aspects of international law involving international institutions, including the International Court of Justice; foundation course for students interested in international trade, business, family law, human rights, environmental law, and an interest in European Union law.
LAW:8658 Jurisprudence 2-3 s.h.
Exploration of questions central to jurisprudence by looking at positions that have been adopted by legal positivist, natural law theory, and sociological models of jurisprudence (i.e., is there more to legal argument than the strategic battle for a favorable judicial ruling? How would one have to conceive of legal reasoning if one were a judge? Are there right answers to legal questions? Do they presuppose a necessary connection between law and morality? Is any exchange of pros and cons merely a spectacle created in order to hide from the dumbfounded public that legal reasoning does not really matter?); comparative dimension provided in readings with background in civil law.
LAW:8660 Justice101 1 s.h.
Immersive course on Fourth Amendment rights; students are equipped with tools necessary to teach Justice101 curriculum to the community-at-large with a goal to increase student and community awareness of what is allowed and prohibited during different types of contact with law enforcement; focus on changes in power dynamics in four situations where interactions are most likely to occur—walking in the street, traveling in a vehicle, at school, and at home.
LAW:8670 Labor Law 3-4 s.h.
How national labor law regulates labor relations in the private sector; law relating to unionized employees and firms; right of employees to organize into unions; limits of concerted activities by employees; scope and provisions of collective bargaining; enforcement of the collective bargaining agreement; rights of individual employees in collective units and in labor organizations; lawyer's role in dealing with judicial, administrative, and arbitral tribunals involved in enforcing labor law; lawyer's role in complex interrelationships between policy, statute, judicial, and administrative decisions.
LAW:8671 Worker Rights on the Front Lines: Workplace Experiences with ADA, FMLA, and Workers' Compensation 1 s.h.
Development of a detailed understanding of two federal statutes, Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and one state statute, Iowa Workers' Compensation.
LAW:8673 Land Use 2-3 s.h.
Zoning, comprehensive planning, provision of services, subdivision development ordinances, and their role in construction of local community; mechanics of various procedural devices, including those for changing zoning restrictions through variances, rezonings, contract and conditional zonings, initiative and referendum process, agreements by cities and developers pursuant to platting processes; coordination of control efforts; theory and doctrinal investigations contrasted with actual problems and results.
LAW:8677 Accounting, Tax, and Business Considerations for Lawyers 1-3 s.h.
Accounting, tax, and business considerations for lawyers and why these are important considerations for lawyers; changes occurring in today's business models; discussions on choosing a legal structure for a business; financial statements basics, detailed example of a financial statement, and discussion on accounting basics expanded; advanced topics in accounting to allow some background on these topics.
LAW:8680 Law and Economics arr.
Introduction to economics analysis of law; how economic reasoning is used to explain and predict the effects of legal rules; fundamental areas of American law (e.g., property, contracts, torts, criminal law); use of economic efficiency as a normative criterion for evaluating legal rules; efficiency compared to various moral concepts to evaluate such rules.
LAW:8698 Law in the Muslim World 2-3 s.h.
International and comparative law issues relevant to countries in the Muslim world; legal cultures, institutions, rules, actors, processes of several jurisdictions including Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Algeria, Nigeria, Palestine, Pakistan; Islamic sharia law as practiced in Sunni and Shiite countries; the role of church versus state, fundamentalism versus secularism, as manifested in the legal system; tension between communitarianism and individualism in modern constitutionalism; intertwining of customary and religious legal practices; first, second, and third generations of human rights; international law on issues such as terrorism, self-determination; women's rights, including polygamy, divorce, child custody, inheritance. Requirements: junior or senior standing.
LAW:8709 Introduction to French Law 1-3 s.h.
Introduction to laws of France, characteristic features, and role of main institutions; civil law, contacts, tort, family law, commercial law, criminal law, labor law; visits to a French law school, Paris Court, and Ecole of Magistrature National (ENM), the National Judge School in Bordeaux. Summer abroad program.
LAW:8712 Legislation 2-3 s.h.
Issues related to legislation and legislative process; introduction to legislation, legislative process, legislative advocacy, statutory interpretation, and statutory drafting; students gain an understanding of the role of lawyers in legislative process and formation of public policy.
LAW:8720 Mediation: Theory and Practice 2-4 s.h.
Essential characteristics; comparison of mediation with litigation and other alternative dispute resolution processes; stages of mediation; confidentiality; enforceability of agreement; ethical problems, particularly lawyer-mediator; student role playing; short writing assignments.
LAW:8726 Mergers and Acquisitions 3 s.h.
Significant legal and financial aspects of business combination transactions; transaction documents (e.g., stock purchase agreements, asset purchase agreements, merger agreements); valuation of companies and pricing of deals; legal and financial considerations affecting the structuring of deals; tender offers and their regulation under the Williams Act, tender offer rules; fiduciary duties of target board, including Revlon duties and the Unocal standard; anti-takeover devices (e.g., poison pills and staggered boards, deal protection devices, freezeout transactions); state anti-takeover statutes. Prerequisites: LAW:8331.
LAW:8728 Start-Up and Emerging Companies 3 s.h.
Exposure to myriad legal issues and obstacles faced by start-ups and emerging companies and the lawyers who represent them.
LAW:8742 Negotiations 1-3 s.h.
Nature and theory of negotiations, diverse rhetorics (including the rhetoric of legal argument) relevant to conduct of negotiations, conflict between ethics and effectiveness; readings from game theory, social psychology, anthropology, rhetoric and ethics.
LAW:8753 Nonprofit Organizations: Structure, Governance, and Strategy 3 s.h.
Focused examination of internal operations of nonprofit organizations; introduction to historical conditions that generated an incredible expansion of diverse and complex organizations that make up the nonprofit sector in the U.S., as well as a multitude of contemporary, real-world obstacles and opportunities leaders and managers navigate within their organizations; topics include issues of accountability, board governance, budgeting, financial management, leadership, strategic planning, taxation, and more; what is a nonprofit organization and what makes a nonprofit organization effective; development of valuable skills necessary to improve the performance of nonprofit organizations.
LAW:8755 Nonprofit Organizations: Advocacy, Collaboration, and Fundraising 3 s.h.
Broad overview of the role nonprofit organizations play in building and enhancing communities; focused examination of the external operations of these organizations; students explore numerous threads that connect nonprofit organizations to outside individuals and entities and are presented with a multitude of contemporary, real-world obstacles and opportunities that leaders and managers navigate outside their organizations; topics focus on issues of advocacy, government relations, fundraising, leadership, marketing, partnerships, public relations, volunteerism, and more.
LAW:8763 Patent Law 2-4 s.h.
All aspects of U.S. patent law; patent claims, adequacy of disclosure, statutory subject matter, validity, inequitable conduct, infringement, remedies, varied specialized doctrines; focus on recent pronouncements from the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Recommendations: LAW:8643.
LAW:8765 Licensing 1 s.h.
Licensing covers a broad range of business arrangements among commercial stakeholders; much of licensing law practice falls into the transactional category including matters pertaining to online commerce, music, intellectual property, research and development, joint ventures, distribution, OEM, manufacturing, services, and other agreements; contractual arrangements that are shaped by scope and nature of underlying assets and rights; limiting doctrines in business practices that are relevant to a transactional attorney.
LAW:8789 Private Companies 3 s.h.
Successful business lawyers are expected to advise clients about the business entity most suitable for their needs and then customize it to fit specific requirements of their business strategy; general focus on one entity—the corporation—and a brief introduction to agency law and general partnerships; a wide number of popular business entities receive little to no coverage and this gap is filled with an introduction to structure and substance of private company forms including limited partnership, limited liability partnership (LLP), and limited liability company (LLC). Prerequisites: LAW:8331.
LAW:8791 Professional Responsibility 2-3 s.h.
Inquire into the public and private professional responsibility of lawyers as informed by the American Bar Association's Model Rules for Professional Conduct (the template for nearly every state bar's ethics rules) and by other areas of substantive law touching on the legal profession. Examine the convergence and divergence of personal values, professional values, and ethical and professional standards, in order to apply them to professional dilemmas and conflicts.
LAW:8796 Property II 3 s.h.
Continuation of LAW:8037; limits on landowner's use of property by private agreements, judicial actions, public regulations; problem areas (servitudes, nuisance, eminent domain); constitutional limits on government activities adversely affecting private property, community planning, zoning, other forms of local land use control; discrimination related to land development, housing; effectiveness of private ordering, judicial decisions, legislative enactments, administrative processes for resolving conflicts over use of land resources; relationships between law and other disciplines in forging solutions to land use issues; law as instrument for achieving societal objectives regarding land use.
LAW:8798 Real Estate Transactions 3 s.h.
Examination of acquisition, financing, and development of real estate; topics include listing agreements, purchase agreements, conveyancing, real estate finance and security instruments, foreclosure, mechanics' liens, and forms of real estate development, including homeowners/condominium associations and other kinds of common interest communities.
LAW:8819 Judicial Remedies 3 s.h.
The law of remedies is the working tool kit for civil litigators, offering various ways to redress a given wrong; remedies to be examined include compensatory damages, injunctive orders, restitution, declaratory judgment, contempt, garnishment, asset tracing, punitive damages, and methods to preserve assets before judgment; cases are drawn from diverse substantive fields, including tort, contract, intellectual property, civil rights, administrative, antitrust, attorneys' fees, and constitutional law.
LAW:8856 Securities Regulation arr.
Examination of law regulating the issuance and sale of securities (i.e., stocks, bonds, other investment vehicles) in the United States; topics include initial public offerings (IPOs), regulation of stock exchanges, private placements of stock, securities fraud litigation, and insider trading law; relevant statutes are the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Corequisites: LAW:8331.
LAW:8857 Market Regulation 3 s.h.
Examination of how capital markets are regulated; primary emphasis on secondary markets which trade on national stock exchanges, rather than on primary market activity such as initial public offerings (IPOs). Prerequisites: LAW:8331.
LAW:8877 Sex-Based Discrimination 2-3 s.h.
Survey of sex-based discrimination and legal responses in the United States and worldwide; American context—constitutional guarantees and various statutory guarantees, including Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972; global context—examination of various regions of the world, emphasis on France, South Africa, and countries with majority Muslim populations; issues involving customary law, affirmative action/quotas, and constitutional reform.
LAW:8879 Sports Law 2-3 s.h.
Various legal issues relating to the structure and operation of amateur and professional sports industries; topics include labor law and collective bargaining in professional sports, history and status of collective bargaining efforts by college athletes, antitrust law as applied to professional and intercollegiate sports, the NCAA enforcement process, Title IX as applied to intercollegiate sports, the NCAA principle of amateurism and legal challenges, representation of professional athletes and negotiation of sports contracts.
LAW:8880 Baseball Salary Arbitration 1-3 s.h.
Major league baseball salary arbitration process that sports agents, attorneys, and team executives participate in, presided over by panels of lawyer arbitrators; students develop written and oral advocacy skills while participating in mock salary arbitration hearings; three students are chosen to represent the UI College of Law at the Tulane University Law School International Baseball Arbitration Competition in mid-January.
LAW:8881 College Athletics Infractions Process 1-2 s.h.
Moot court competition involving college athletics rules violations; the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) processes major rules infractions (e.g., recruiting violations) through a hearing process that is similar to an administrative law proceeding; NCAA infractions process; participation in mock hearings.
LAW:8891 State and Local Taxation 2-3 s.h.
Limitations on state taxing powers under the United States Constitution, including Commerce, Due Process, and Privileges and Immunities Clauses; subnational jurisdictions, particularly states with an emphasis on sales tax and corporate income taxes, gross receipts taxes, and excise taxes; issues relating to ecommerce.
LAW:8929 Taxation of Partnerships 2-3 s.h.
Introduction to federal tax treatment of partnerships and limited liability companies, the most common business entities in use in the United States today; classification of entities as partnerships for federal tax purposes; formation of partnership and subsequent contributions to partnership capital; flow-through tax treatment of partnership operations; tax-sensitive allocations of items of partnership income, deduction, credit and loss; partnership distributions and related tax-sheltering strategies, liquidation or sale of partnership interests; death or retirement of partners, tax treatment of partnerships compared with S corporations. Prerequisites: LAW:8194.
LAW:8933 Tax Practice and Procedure 2-3 s.h.
Issues relating to proper tax liability of a taxpayer, not necessarily how the IRS collects taxes and administers tax laws; judicial deference to agency guidance; procedural issues related to examination and filing of returns and payment of taxes; attorney-client and other privilege matters; ethical issues related to tax practice; IRS investigatory powers; IRS assessment and collection procedures; assignment of problems and discussion of current issues in tax policy. Corequisites: LAW:8194.
LAW:8936 Estate and Gift Tax 1-3 s.h.
Justification for wealth taxation, effectiveness of current law, and alternative methods of wealth taxation; two key wealth transfer taxes—estate tax and gift tax; emphasis on identification of tax base and taxpaying unit; may include income tax effects which flow from an individual's death, income taxation of grantor trusts, and related income tax issues. Corequisites: LAW:8194.
LAW:8937 Cybercrime and Security 3 s.h.
Global reach of the internet, low cost of online activity, and relative anonymity of users has contributed to a wide escalation in cybercrime and in cybersecurity concerns; fast-evolving subject areas with discussion of current developments and events.
LAW:8938 Technology in Law Practice 2 s.h.
Introduction to selected technologies that affect modern law practice including cloud computing, document preparation tools and techniques, e-discovery tools and issues, practice management, professional responsibility concerns, legal project management, courtroom technology, and legal research analytics.
LAW:8954 Trademarks and Unfair Competition Law 3 s.h.
Law of unfair competition with primary emphasis on trademarks; subjects include policies underlying unfair competition law, creation and establishment of trademark and trademark-like rights, enforcement of those rights, non-trademark concepts of false advertising, rights in one's persona, and the intersection of the First Amendment and trademark law; practical aspects of trademarks including mechanics of the federal registration process; for students who have an interest in trademark and unfair competition law, both specifically and as part of a broader business law practice.
LAW:8981 Trusts and Estates I 1-4 s.h.
Law of succession and trusts; topics include policy basis of inheritance and the changing character of intergenerational wealth transfer; intestate succession; the requirements for executing and revoking wills; the rise of will substitutes; spousal protection against disinheritance; the creation, modification, and termination of trusts; the particular rules applicable to charitable trusts; the fiduciary duties of trustees; the nature of a beneficiary's interest in trust, the range of the trustee's discretion, and the rights of a beneficiary's creditors; recurring construction problems and pitfalls in drafting.
LAW:8987 Veterans Benefits Law 2-3 s.h.
Theory of veterans' benefits law and introduction to skills necessary to represent veteran clients at every stage of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adjudication process; how many veterans struggle to navigate the complex VA benefits system without assistance of counsel; law that governs administration and adjudication of these benefits; fundamental law of VA claims adjudication process; dispute resolution and federal agency litigation practice; what is required to effectively represent veterans in their appeals for much needed benefits.
LAW:8992 Water Law arr.
Legal schemes for securing and using water rights in surface water and groundwater for private and public uses in the United States; riparian and prior appropriation doctrines of water allocation, groundwater management regimes, federal water management and regulation, and interstate and transboundary allocation devices; evolving role of science, economics, and policy in water allocation law; does not address issues of water quality, which are covered in environmental law.
LAW:9010 Appellate Advocacy I 1 s.h.
Experience based on an assigned fictitious case: writing an appellate brief asserting the client's position, and arguing the case before a panel of students, faculty, community attorneys. Prerequisites: LAW:8032 and LAW:8033.
LAW:9011 Client-Centered Public Defense Advocacy 1-3 s.h.
Introduction to core elements of court-appointed representation in criminal courts.
LAW:9021 Van Oosterhout Baskerville Moot Court Competition 1 s.h.
Single-elimination tournament culminating in the final four advocates arguing before a panel of judges; advocates write a portion of the brief, argue for and against the issue they briefed. Prerequisites: LAW:9010.
LAW:9028 Jessup Moot Court Competition Team 1-2 s.h.
Participation as team member in Jessup International Moot Court Competition; preparation of memorials in fall, travel to February regional rounds; travel to international competition in Washington, D.C., for top two teams. Prerequisites: LAW:9010.
LAW:9033 National Moot Court Competition Team 1 s.h.
Participation by third-year students as law school's representatives in the National Moot Court Competition. Requirements: placement as one of four finalists in LAW:9021.
LAW:9034 National Moot Court Tutorial 2 s.h.
For students participating in the National Moot Court competition; provides a problem and a substantial record, which provide basis for appellate brief and oral argument competition; integrates teaching of substantive law with development of oral and written advocacy skills in preparation and application for the national competition.
LAW:9037 Advanced Moot Court Competition Team 1 s.h.
Advanced Moot court team; members are top advocates from previous year's Van Oosterhout/Baskerville competition. Fall of third year.
LAW:9038 Jessup International Moot Court Competition 1 s.h.
Participation by second-year students in intramural regional- and national-level moot court competition in international law; intensive criticism in appellate brief writing and oral argument. Prerequisites: LAW:9010.
LAW:9041 Vis International Moot Court 1-3 s.h.
Participation for up to four students in the Vis International Moot Court, an annual international moot competition concerning international commercial arbitration under the Vienna Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG); under close supervision of instructor, students prepare two briefs, one for the claimant and one for the respondent, are mooted repeatedly by instructor and practicing attorneys (often alumni of the competition), and then participate in multiple rounds of moot court competition in the United States and, ultimately, either Hong Kong or Vienna. Recommendations: one course in international arbitration or international business transactions.
LAW:9046 Moot Court Board 1-3 s.h.
Experience as member of the Moot Court Board administering the Appellate Advocacy Program, researching appellate cases used in the program, judging appellate arguments. Requirements: membership based on performance in LAW:9010.
LAW:9055 Jury Focus Groups 1 s.h.
Role of the jury in civil and criminal court systems; how lawyers can use jury focus groups to learn more about their cases.
LAW:9060 Trial Advocacy 1-2 s.h.
Opportunities to develop and refine skills used in preparation and trial of civil and criminal cases; students are "on their feet" during most class sessions, practicing the arts of voir dire, opening statement, direct and cross examination, introduction of exhibits, use of expert testimony, and closing argument; the course culminates with a full-scale trial, from filing of pretrial motions to rendering of a jury verdict conducted by student co-counsel; students receive extensive criticism on the effectiveness of their classroom and final performances, and all class sessions are frequently recorded for review and critiqued by instructors and fellow students. Prerequisites: LAW:8460.
LAW:9061 Advanced Trial Advocacy - Stephenson Competition 1-2 s.h.
Review and expansion of topics presented in the initial trial advocacy course; preparation and application of these principles in the Stephenson trials; introduction to additional advanced problems such as the evidentiary issues raised in the trial problem. Corequisites: LAW:9060.
LAW:9062 Trial Advocacy Board 1-2 s.h.
Administration of Trial Advocacy Program and Stephenson Competition; research and writing in connection with trial problems and readings used in program; critique of performances of trial problems. Prerequisites: LAW:8460 and LAW:9060.
LAW:9066 Stephenson Trial Advocacy Team arr.
Student participation as College of Law representatives in Stephenson Trial Advocacy Competition. Prerequisites: LAW:9061.
LAW:9115 Law Review 1-2 s.h.
Performance of substantive tasks to produce a first-rate scholarly journal; writing a substantial note; comprehensive legal research experience; analysis of complex legal issues with enhanced critical-reasoning skills and command of the legal standard, The Bluebook citation system; selection of students that transfer to UI College of Law after their first year and rising second-year students is based on the Write-On Competition.
LAW:9118 Student Journal Editor - Law Review arr.
Experience on the Iowa Law Review editorial staff: managing production, overseeing business operations, administering student writing program, selecting and editing articles for publication, supervising student research and writing. Eligibility based on previous writing for the journal. Prerequisites: LAW:9115.
LAW:9124 Journal of Corporation Law 1-2 s.h.
Experience editing articles and writing commentaries for The Journal of Corporation Law, a student-operated scholarly publication that examines subjects of current importance to businesses and the bar.
LAW:9127 Student Journal Editor - Journal of Corporate Law arr.
Experience on The Journal of Corporation Law editorial staff: managing production, overseeing business operations, administering student writing program, selecting and editing articles for publication, supervising student research and writing. Eligibility based on previous writing for the journal. Prerequisites: LAW:9124.
LAW:9142 Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems Journal 1-2 s.h.
Experience researching and writing on issues in international and comparative law for the journal Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems. Requirements: second- or third-year law standing.
LAW:9145 Student Journal Editor - TLCP Journal arr.
Experience researching, writing, and editing on issues in international and comparative law for the journal Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems. Requirements: second- or third-year law standing.
LAW:9163 Journal of Gender, Race and Justice 1-2 s.h.
Academic year experience on The Journal of Gender, Race & Justice: writing two journal pieces, including a recent development and a note or a comment, and performing office duties. Requirements: second- or third-year law standing.
LAW:9166 Student Journal Editor - Gender, Race and Justice arr.
Experience on The Journal of Gender, Race & Justice editorial staff: managing student writing program, overseeing business operations and production, selecting symposium topic and participants, selecting and editing all publications pieces; eligibility based on writing and editing experience.
LAW:9302 Clinical Law Program: Internship arr.
Experience working directly with faculty members on cases and in-house program; full participation in interviewing, fact investigation, negotiation, courtroom proceedings.
LAW:9303 Advanced Clinical Law Internship arr.
Continued representation of a specific client or matter; or continued representation of clients in the practice group in which students worked their first semester, but with more ownership and greater independence; opportunity to serve as mentors to new clinical law internship students. Prerequisites: LAW:9302.
LAW:9320 Field Placement: District of Columbia Program arr.
Students work closely with attorneys and enroll in a weekly seminar with other externs in the Washington, DC, area; through seminar and field work, students examine the role of attorneys in the nation's capital, witness the function of administrative agencies and the process of federal lawmaking, and engage in self-evaluation and reflection on field work.
LAW:9322 Field Placement: Judicial arr.
Close work with a federal district court judge or state appellate judge conducting research and drafting a wide variety of legal memoranda, orders, and opinions; assist in hearings and perform other duties generally associated with a judicial clerkship; weekly meetings with a faculty supervisor to discuss student's work in chambers; participation in biweekly classroom discussions.
LAW:9324 New York Pro Bono Scholars Program arr.
Students spend 12 weeks working full time in a pro bono placement while also completing an academic component at their law school; students are permitted to take the New York bar examination in February of their final year of study before they graduate; after successful completion of the program and any other graduation requirements, students are admitted to practice as soon as practicable after they receive their JD degree (typically in June).
LAW:9331 Field Placement: General arr.
Students earn credit working closely with attorneys in a wide range of placements; field placements designed so that students are directly involved in activities characteristically performed by attorneys in a real-world setting; some placements routinely offered and arranged by the law school, others by students and approved by faculty; some placements are local and students take them along with their other classes; other placements are full time, located across the country and around the world; in addition to fieldwork, students are enrolled in a seminar with other externs.
LAW:9332 Field Placement: Advanced arr.
Students appear in court, advise clients, or engage in other lawyering tasks; skills topics tailored to student interest and selected to cover material not explored in the general field placement course; students develop and and teach a class on a lawyering skill topic of their choice for the general field placement course.
LAW:9335 Summer Legal Placement 1-3 s.h.
Externship opportunities for direct involvement in activities characteristically performed by attorneys (e.g., research and writing, document drafting, client interviewing and counseling, fact investigation, negotiations, court appearances); in-depth exposure to as many facets of the actual practice of law as practicable in each externship.
LAW:9423 Tutorial arr.
Different types of pedagogical techniques.
LAW:9429 Intellectual Property Advocacy 1-4 s.h.
Integrates teaching of substantive intellectual property law with development of oral and written advocacy skills in intellectual property field; builds on earlier learning in preparation for practice of law.
LAW:9436 Sexuality and the Law 3 s.h.
The field of sexuality studies can cover everything from sexual knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors of individuals to sexual cultures, identities, and communities; focus on social, economic, political, and cultural dimensions of sexuality.
LAW:9444 Tutorial for Foreign-Trained Lawyers 1 s.h.
Introduction to the legal system and legal educational system of the United States; particular emphasis on those aspects of the U.S. system that present a strong contrast with other countries' legal systems, whether from civil or common law traditions; for foreign-trained law students (LLM, JD, or SJD) who have not earned a U.S.-based JD or U.S.-based LLM degree that includes an introduction to U.S. law and legal system.
LAW:9455 Medical Tutorial for Law Students arr.
Participation on medical and/or surgical rounds under supervision of attending physician; didactic sessions on legal, medical, and ethical issues arising from the clinical experience, and issues such as peer review, credentialing, quality assurance, cost containment, AIDS, reproductive technology; recent developments in medical technologies. Cosponsored by Carver College of Medicine.
LAW:9460 SJD Tutorial 5 s.h.
Thesis work under supervision of Doctor of Juridical Science (SJD) committees; dissertation committee chairs conduct an irregular series of meetings to learn about and discuss issues common to research and writing of each thesis involved; students develop full thesis proposals and draft individual chapters; forum provided for workshopping student work and development of students' abilities to discuss and critique legal scholarship; for all SJD students during their two semesters of residency at the College of Law.
LAW:9473 Writing Tutorial arr.
Writing project on a subject or topical area specified by the supervising faculty member; group meetings; writing tutorial.
LAW:9478 Advanced Legal Writing: Writing Center 2 s.h.
Qualities of good legal writing including predictive, persuasive, and academic writing; how to teach those skills to others. Requirements: College of Law writing center tutor.
LAW:9486 Directed Research and Writing arr.
Research and writing project unrelated to any substantive course, supervised by a faculty member.
LAW:9490 Independent Research Project arr.
Work under faculty supervision; research.
LAW:9491 Independent Research and Writing arr.
Independent research and writing under thesis advisor/committee chair. Requirements: SJD enrollment.
LAW:9503 Advanced Immigration Law and Policy arr.
Examination of issues arising out of contemporary problems of immigration law and policy; topics vary, may include critical analysis of initiatives for national, state, and local immigration reform; traditional class-based component, experiential component, advanced legal research component, and rigorous writing requirement. Requirements: LAW:8577 or legal clinic experience.
LAW:9508 Environmental, Social, and Governance Basics 2-3 s.h.
By developing an awareness of Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) issues confronting society, students will be better positioned to advise a range of clients on a range of issues. Students will also be better prepared to draft a range of documents at the intersection of law and ESG, such as corporate disclosure documents, model legislation, and policy statements.
LAW:9509 Advanced Problems in International Environmental Law arr.
Research and writing seminar exploring selected topics that may be encountered in practice; topics vary.
LAW:9510 Climate Change Law and Policy 3 s.h.
Introduction to law and policy related to climate change; seminar readings provide an overview of laws and policies that seek to mitigate climate change and adapt to its effects; fundamentals of climate science including scientific knowledge regarding impacts of climate change and obstacles to effective communication about climate science; various private and public responses to climate change at local, state, federal, and international levels; exploration of different trends in climate change litigation.
LAW:9528 Advanced Topics in International Law arr.
Contemporary problems of public international law and policy; issues arising from armed conflict, use of force, pacific settlement of disputes; human rights law and policy (individual civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights; group rights such as self-determination, development, environment, peace); trade and development; environmental law and policy (e.g., climate change, species extinction, pollution).
LAW:9545 Tax Policy 2-4 s.h.
Tools to evaluate existing and proposed changes to state and federal tax systems; evaluation of tax systems through numerous perspectives whether economic, philosophical, or comparative, depending on student interest; specific attention to tax policy proposals that command popular and congressional attention; students write a policy paper that evaluates a current tax policy proposal. Requirements: prior or concurrent enrollment in any tax course.
LAW:9554 Compliance, Ethics, and Risk Management arr.
Public and private organizations—including corporations, nonprofits, universities, and government agencies—are responsible for ensuring that their personnel comply with legal and regulatory requirements; organizations must find mechanisms to develop strategies and cultures of compliance; students develop an understanding of the field of organizational compliance and issues that compliance professionals are responsible for overseeing, establish a strong foundation in behavioral and traditional legal ethics, and develop persuasive arguments regarding strengths and weaknesses of compliance efforts undertaken by organizations. Corequisites: LAW:8331.
LAW:9556 Constitutional Theory: Originalism and Its Critics 3 s.h.
Originalism is ascendant, at least at the Supreme Court, but there is widespread disagreement about what originalism is, what it would require of judges, and whether originalist methods are justified; exploration of scholarship supporting different forms of originalism. Prerequisites: LAW:8010 or LAW:8280.
LAW:9558 Corporate Boards Seminar 2 s.h.
Simulation of seven meetings of a board of directors of a hypothetical company; students act as board members facing a discrete issue of corporate governance and take turns acting as chair of the board or as general counsel, leading the board of directors though a discussion of the issues; focus on the normal functioning of United States publicly listed companies, as well as on the duties of directors in times of crisis or significant change to the corporation. Prerequisites: LAW:8331.
LAW:9573 Cultural Property/Heritage arr.
Concept of cultural property, measures for its protection, impact of these measures on the transfer of cultural items; traditional art and architecture, biological and fossil material, human remains; contexts in which issues have arisen, such as stolen cultural property, property acquired during armed conflict and in colonial settings, and property collected in the field or excavated; international, national, and state law, including UNESCO convention on illicit transfer of cultural property, U.S. Archaeological Resources Protection Act, Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act; how developing professional ethics codes affect the concept of cultural property.
LAW:9582 Deals arr.
Economic structure of complex commercial transactions as memorialized in agreements including bank credit facilities, indentures, underwriting agreements, other documents governing equity financings and financings involving convertible or preferred securities, venture capital agreements, securitization documents, business combination agreements, joint venture and shareholders agreements, limited liability company operating agreements, project finance documents; commercial agreements and how sophisticated parties order their private relationships to achieve efficient results. Prerequisites: LAW:8331.
LAW:9591 Family Law in the World Community arr.
Family law from a global perspective; treatment of family law problems in varied legal systems; application of international treaties and conventions to issues such as child custody, adoption and foster care, education and child labor, juvenile crime and punishment, child trafficking and exploitation, migrant and refugee children, child soldiers.
LAW:9630 Leadership in Higher Education 3 s.h.
Introduction to leadership in higher education; readings provide an overview of leadership skills needed to navigate some of the most pressing issues in higher education; students consider the role of professional schools operating within a larger university; discussion topics may include academic freedom, diversity/equity/inclusion, and intercollegiate athletics; assessment and development of individual leadership skills while analyzing policy questions associated with institutional responses to everyday decision-making and crisis management.
LAW:9631 Higher Education and the Law arr.
Introduction to the most pressing legal issues facing colleges and universities today: free speech on campus; academic freedom and tenure; diversity; student discipline; student privacy, safety, and well-being; Title IX; and intercollegiate athletics; a major goal is to consider the policy questions associated with institutional responses to these legal issues.
LAW:9635 Happiness and the Law 3-4 s.h.
Happiness, law, and public policy; lawyer and client relationship; how to be a happy lawyer; pedagogical mix of Socratic discussion of readings and experiential components through which students experiment with mindfulness techniques and constructing an actionable and personal career-life plan that takes into account themes explored; additional experiential exercises.
LAW:9639 History of Regulation of Smoking and Tobacco arr.
Regulation of smoking and tobacco use; history, beginning with 19th and early 20th centuries; state statutes and case law; OSHA, EPA, and FDA regulations; class action litigation, involvement of law firms in formulating tobacco company strategies, use of medical studies, economic history of the tobacco industry.
LAW:9645 Race, Class, and Education 2-3 s.h.
Education plays a crucial role in sustaining a democratic society, and as such, it is critical to understand and be able to critique legal and public policy choices that shape educational systems; exploration of issues of equity, access, and reform in American education, particularly as pertains to race and class.
LAW:9681 Elder Law arr.
With the aging population, elder law has become one of the fastest growing areas of law practice; examination of legal, policy, and planning issues related to aging in America; topics include planning for incapacity, guardianship, end-of-life planning (advance medical directives), social security, Medicare and Medicaid, planning for catastrophic illness and long-term care, elder abuse and neglect; exploration of ethical issues dealing with elderly and adult children of elderly.
LAW:9701 International Criminal Law arr.
Available legal responses to ISIS; topics include the law of genocide, war crimes (including gender crimes), crimes against humanity, terrorism, human trafficking, money laundering, the International Criminal Court, and alternatives to prosecution including national truth commissions; strengths and weaknesses of international criminal law as a response to mass atrocity; practical considerations that limit and permit the effective functioning of this burgeoning legal experiment.
LAW:9708 International and Comparative Labor and Employment Law 2-3 s.h.
Survey of labor and employment laws and norms developed and promulgated by the International Labor Organization (ILO), the European Union, free trade agreements, and corporate codes; comparative focus on laws of the United States, Germany, and China—three leading world economies with vastly different labor and employment law systems; how to make informed questions, including to local counsel, when cross-border, employment-related legal issues are encountered; why countries have different systems of labor and employment protection despite the fact that they all try to solve similar problems; how the United States is, or is not, unique.
LAW:9723 Seminar on Islamic Law and Government 3 s.h.
Islamic legal and political legacy from formative period until modern time; critical analysis of logic and context of development; development of jurisprudential, legal, and political literature; overview of theories and practices of governance in Islam beginning with Caliphate system and ending with modern nation-state models. Same as RELS:6723.
LAW:9739 Topics in the Philosophy of Law arr.
Opportunity to explore certain questions in law and philosophy at greater depth; topics vary, ranging from foundational questions to issues with strong practical implications for public policy; readings specifically selected to fit topic area.
LAW:9770 Latinx and the Law 3 s.h.
Exploration of legal and theoretical issues relevant to Latina/o/x people in the United States; topics include role of law in defining Latinx identity, legal histories of Latinx subgroups (e.g., Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans), legal regulation of language and accent, immigration and citizenship law, and antidiscrimination law.
LAW:9804 Legislative Redistricting Seminar 3 s.h.
Examination of redistricting—the process of drawing lines for legislative elections in the United States; issues of the Census; vote dilution; one person, one vote; the Voting Right Act; partisan and racial gerrymandering; special purpose districts; theories of democracy inevitably play a significant role in discussions, and political science often informs evidence at the heart of disputes about election law.
LAW:9805 Hot Topics in Iowa Law and Legislation 3 s.h.
Exploration of recent developments and hot topics in Iowa state law, including recently passed legislation and legislation being considered by the Iowa legislature.
LAW:9811 Law of War, Peace, and Military Affairs arr.
How does the law seek to restrain use of force in armed conflict? When may sovereign states lawfully take up arms? Once war begins, what methods may states and soldiers employ? How does and should the law of war deal with non-state actors, notably terrorists and private military contractors? Must the world reassess its answers to these questions in light of geostrategic developments since 9/11? When and why is a soldier’s obedience to illegal orders an acceptable excuse? Is the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty a success or failure?
LAW:9820 The Law of Low-Wage Workers 3 s.h.
Exploration of how traditional labor and employment law might be insufficient to properly protect low-wage workers; focus on alternative representational institutions (e.g., worker centers) and the special role that federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies and attorneys general play in this area; special concerns of particular groups of low-wage workers (e.g., agriculture, meatpacking, the “gig” economy, households/domestic work); may include immigrant and prison labor. Prerequisites: LAW:8421 or LAW:8670 or LAW:8415.
LAW:9826 LLM Seminar arr.
Basic research and analytical methodologies for the international and comparative law fields; workshop approach to project proposals, drafts.
LAW:9829 Media Law 3 s.h.
Overview of law that applies to mass media, citizen media, and social media; how law has attempted to define "the Media," and how it has distinguished between distribution platforms in treatment of media rights and obligations; American press and notions of press freedom at time of founding; tracking evolution of law governing injuries inflicted by speakers beginning with common-law treatment of libel and slander to constitutionalization of those torts; examination of law that applies to various journalistic tools; problems of jurisdiction and choice of law posed by online news; examining market influence on content; comparing American system with other countries approaches to media law.
LAW:9830 Housing Law and Policy 3 s.h.
Examination of how housing laws and policies in this country have fallen short of realizing the Housing Act's lofty ideal; exploration of challenges and tradeoffs inherent in developing effective legal solutions to the housing crisis through class discussions and exercises, research papers, and moderated presentations by housing professionals—from community organizers to legal aid lawyers to real estate developers and public officials.
LAW:9834 Transportation Law and Policy 3-4 s.h.
Transportation plays an outsized and understudied role in day-to-day life, economy, and society; law plays a similarly vital and underappreciated role in determining transportation policy; introduction to the law and policy of transportation.
LAW:9860 Inside-Out: Social Justice Issues and Critical Theory 2-4 s.h.
Use of Inside-Out model; law students (outside students) co-learn with incarcerated students (inside students) at the Iowa Medical and Classification Center (IMCC), also known as Oakdale, a medium security state prison and the site for the University of Iowa Liberal Arts Beyond Bars (UI LABB) program; analysis and discussion of current social justice issues through a critical legal theory lens (i.e., critical race theory, feminist legal theory, LatCrit, ClassCrits, queer theory, critical disability theory).
LAW:9861 Current Social Justice Issues and Critical Theory Perspectives 2-4 s.h.
Use of critical theories as a tool to examine current social justice issues; creation of a learning environment that adheres to the values of critical legal theories—which is non-hierarchical, values expression in all forms from a broad range of authors/creators, and disrupts traditional understanding of the classroom.
LAW:9863 Patent Prosecution Seminar 3-4 s.h.
Drafting seminar on patent application preparation and prosecution; student drafting exercises and presentations on advanced patent law topics; administrative rules and procedures governing practice before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office; for students who plan to practice patent law. Prerequisites: LAW:8643.
LAW:9865 Intellectual Property Scholarship Seminar 3-4 s.h.
Exploration of major themes in intellectual property law scholarship through juxtaposition of classic and contemporary intellectual property law articles.
LAW:9871 Privacy Law and Technology 3-4 s.h.
We have become, wittingly or not, compulsive data makers; every day we shed reams of personal information that those who have an interest in empowering, monetizing, manipulating, or suppressing us are eager to acquire; this dynamic is redrawing the line between what it means for information to be private/public, personal/commercial, ours/theirs; privacy law and technology serves an interdisciplinary introduction to technologies, laws, and policies that shape how that information is collected, who has access to it, and what it can reveal about us; class sessions alternate between focusing on legal frameworks and the technologies they implicate.
LAW:9873 Contract Drafting Boot Camp 1 s.h.
Contracts are an essential part of the practice of law for transactional lawyers who draft contracts, and litigators who often argue about what contracts mean; introduction to the parts of a contract and the principles of contract drafting in a week-long intensive simulation; students consider doctrine, theory, skills, and ethics associated with contract drafting, and engage in multiple contract drafting exercises. Requirements: no prior, current, or future enrollment in LAW:9874.
LAW:9874 Principles of Contract Drafting 2-3 s.h.
Principles of drafting business contracts; focus on structure of contracts, how to draft each of the parts of a business contract, and how to translate the needs of the business into clear and understandable contractual language; examination of typical business contracts (e.g., nondisclosure agreements, letters of intent, purchase agreements, and other types of agreements); students complete drafting exercises and a series of larger contract drafting projects.
LAW:9875 Judicial Opinion Drafting 3 s.h.
Introduction to duties and responsibilities of judicial clerkships; writing bench memoranda and draft opinions at trial and appellate levels.
LAW:9882 Public Health Law arr.
Introduction to scope, function, and history of governmental activities and programs encompassed by public health regimes (primarily in the United States); legal and constitutional powers and duties of states to create prerequisites for health of population as a whole; limitations on exercise of that power to restrict individuals interests (inter alia) in liberty, autonomy, privacy, and property; tensions and conflicts that arise when collective action on behalf of public/common good constrains what the state deems to be acceptable risks triggered by actions of private individuals.
LAW:9883 Health Disparities and the Law 3-4 s.h.
Examination of relationship between race, racism, health disparities, and law; use of readings, video clips, and class discussions to trace history of racism in health care and development of scientific racism; how race became incorporated into our systems of law and governance; how race can lead to disparities in exposure to health hazards and diagnosis and treatment of illness.
LAW:9886 Reconstruction and the Constitution arr.
After the Civil War, during Reconstruction, Congress enacted the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments that changed the constitutional course of the nation and took place during the period of most progressive reform in U.S. history; students address: How do these amendments fit together? Where did the language of these amendments come from? How did these relate to the Dred Scott case? How did this constitutional change occur? What was necessary for this reform to come about? What was necessary legally? What was necessary in terms of social context for this progressive reform to occur? How do these amendments relate to the Bill of Rights and the 17th Amendment for women's suffrage? Prerequisites: LAW:8010.
LAW:9912 Selected Issues in Family Law arr.
In-depth look at an issue or set of issues in family law; relevant cases, statutes, scholarship; class visits or on-the-job observations with community members who play roles in the family law process being examined.
LAW:9936 Selected Topics in Immigration Law arr.
Issues arising out of contemporary problems of immigration law and practice; topics may include immigration enforcement policy, draft immigration legislation, initiating representation, bond hearings, suppression/other motions practice, defensive asylum/related claims, appellate practice, "know your rights" counseling, establishing powers of attorney/other forms of legally binding substitute decision-making pertaining to family members/property/other assets, identifying and working with local resources/community organizations that can assist with or reinforce goals of individual client representation; may involve guest speakers/field trips to local nonprofits/government agencies. Recommendations: no specialized knowledge of immigration law is presupposed and no prior immigration law courses required.
LAW:9950 SJD Continuous Enrollment 1 s.h.
Intended for SJD students working on their dissertation with no mandatory classes left to take; continuous registration is a College of Law policy and students should register for continuous registration only if they are not going to register for any other tuition and fee-assessing courses. Requirements: SJD enrollment, completion of required coursework, and promotion to candidacy.
LAW:9959 Supreme Court Seminar arr.
Supreme Court practice, procedure, jurisdiction; the art of opinion writing; in-depth analysis of cases on the court's pending docket; writing briefs, conducting research, conferencing cases, assigning and preparing opinions, and persuading colleagues; preparation of an opinion.
LAW:9965 Empirical Analysis of Crime and Criminal Justice Policy 3 s.h.
Selected readings of social science articles on criminal justice system; basic concepts needed to become educated consumers of empirical research in general.
LAW:9989 Litigation for Decarceration 2-3 s.h.
Analysis and discussion of recent criminal-legal reforms aimed at reducing the number of individuals who are imprisoned in the federal system.
LAW:9990 Wrongful Convictions and the American Criminal Justice System arr.
Over 300 innocent persons in the United States have been exonerated through DNA evidence after being convicted of crimes they did not commit since 1989; how wrongful convictions occur, how they are remedied, how future injustices can be prevented; introduction to criminal appeals and postconviction proceedings; examination of cases of wrongful convictions; common factors that contribute to conviction of innocent; challenges of proving innocence under statutory and constitutional law; how the system can be reformed to prevent wrongful convictions.