This is the first version of the 2021-22 General Catalog. The final edition and the historical PDF will be published during the fall semester.

This is a list of all classics in English courses. For more information, see Classics.

CLSA:1000 First-Year Seminar 1 s.h.

Small discussion class taught by a faculty member; topics chosen by instructor; may include outside activities (e.g., films, lectures, performances, readings, visits to research facilities). Requirements: first- or second-semester standing.

CLSA:1010 Hero, God, Mortal: Literature of Greece 3 s.h.

Ancient Greek literature and culture as it responded to Homer; may include genre (e.g., epic to tragedy), religion, changing concept of hero, interaction with Mediterranean cultures, myth versus history. GE: Literary, Visual, and Performing Arts.

CLSA:1020 Love and Glory: The Literature of Rome 3 s.h.

Main themes and works of ancient Roman literature; works reflecting conflict of personal desire and public self in Rome. GE: Literary, Visual, and Performing Arts.

CLSA:1040 World Literature: Antiquity to 1700 3 s.h.

Reading and analysis of major literary texts from writing's origins to 1700 in the Mediterranean, Asia, and Africa; interrelationship of literature and history. GE: Literary, Visual, and Performing Arts. Same as CL:1240.

CLSA:1045 Classics and Young Adult Fantasy Fiction 3 s.h.

Survey of young adult fantasy fiction influenced by classical (Greek and Roman) stories, plots, characters, names, events, and places.

CLSA:1100 Contraception Across Time and Cultures 3 s.h.

Methods and history of contraception; issues of unwanted pregnancy and birth control in fiction, film, and media around the world. Taught in English. Same as GHS:1100, GRMN:1100, GWSS:1100, WLLC:1100.

CLSA:1181 Ancient Medicine 3 s.h.

Thematic examination of theories and practices of Greco-Roman physicians, which in turn became the medical tradition of medieval Islamic world and European medicine until mid-19th century; historical medical terms, theories, and practices. GE: Historical Perspectives. Same as GHS:1181.

CLSA:1200 Interpretation of Ancient Literature 3 s.h.

Development of skills in literary interpretation through study of ancient Greek and Roman literature in translation; students read dramatic and nondramatic poetry, fictional and nonfictional prose, non-Greco-Roman literature of ancient Mediterranean, and classical reception; 8th century B.C.E. to 4th century C.E. GE: Interpretation of Literature.

CLSA:1323 Life in the Biblical World 3 s.h.

Examination of world depicted in Old and New Testaments of the Bible; archaeological evidence, ancient art, historical accounts, geography, and Bible text used to examine background of biblical text, shedding light on different aspects of daily life in antiquity from different points of view from Late Bronze Age through Roman period. Same as RELS:1323.

CLSA:1340 Magic in the Ancient World 3 s.h.

Ancient Greek and Roman writings on magic, including ancient spells and charms. GE: Values and Culture.

CLSA:1380 Ancient Science 3 s.h.

Survey of Greek and Roman scientific practices from Homer to Constantine.

CLSA:1400 Biblical Archaeology 1,3 s.h.

Introduction to the science of archaeology and the archaeology of the lands of the Bible to understand historical, cultural, economic, linguistic, and religious backgrounds of the Bible and biblical periods. Same as RELS:1400.

CLSA:1740 Writing Strategies: Word Origins and Word Choice 3 s.h.

Study of words, their meanings, and their origins combined with writing; words and word histories; role of English language in the world. GE: Literary, Visual, and Performing Arts. Same as WRIT:1740.

CLSA:1805 Legends and Heroes of Ancient Rome 1 s.h.

Introduction to narratives of Roman heroes from Livy, Ovid, and Plutarch; background information for further study in classics.

CLSA:1809 Classics and Cinema 3 s.h.

Cinematic depictions of the classical world compared with scholarly views; selected films and primary ancient sources of the same period.

CLSA:1830 Greek Civilization 3 s.h.

History, literature, art, architecture, religion, social life ca. 3000 B.C.E. to second century B.C.E. GE: Historical Perspectives.

CLSA:1840 Roman Civilization 3 s.h.

History, literature, politics, religion, social structure from eighth century B.C.E. to second century C.E. GE: Historical Perspectives.

CLSA:1875 Ancient Sports and Leisure 3 s.h.

Sports, games, and hobbies in the ancient world, primarily Greece and Rome, 1500 B.C.E. to 500 C.E.; ancient Olympic games, Roman festival games; anthropology of sport. GE: Values and Culture.

CLSA:1910 Ancient and Modern Worlds: Common Problems 3 s.h.

Exploration of how many modern world problems can profitably be compared to problems arising in the ancient Mediterranean world and from ancient peoples' responses to those problems.

CLSA:2016 Classical Mythology 3 s.h.

Introduction to ancient Greek and Roman myths with focus on using these sources as interpretations of culture and human psyche; emphasis on flexibility of myth and its importance for understanding ancient history, art, literature, religion, and philosophy. GE: Literary, Visual, and Performing Arts; Values and Culture.

CLSA:2018 Odysseus: The Image of a Trickster Hero in Literature and Film 3 s.h.

How the figure of Odysseus has long intrigued the West as glorified seeker of truth or damned treacherous deceiver; representations of hero by authors that include Greek tragedians, Virgil, Dante, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Margaret Atwood, and others with a point of departure from Homer's Odysseus; survey of Odysseus's depictions throughout the centuries to understand the fascination his character held, and continues to hold, over classical and modern writers; selected adaptations of Odysseus’ adventures in art and contemporary cinema to understand the exuberance of the mythical hero.

CLSA:2048 The Invention of Writing: From Cuneiform to Computers 3 s.h.

Invention of writing as one of the most momentous events in the history of human civilizations; how the use of written sign systems, notations, maps, graphs, encryptions, and most recently, computer programs have consequences that reach deeply into all aspects of people's lives; how writing fascinates and delights, fosters reflexive thinking and facilitates development of complex societies, and gives rise to institutions of social power and control; students explore the invention of writing and its consequences in broad international and interdisciplinary context. Taught in English. Same as ANTH:2248, ASIA:2248, CL:2248, COMM:2248, GRMN:2248, HIST:2148, IS:2248, LING:2248, TRNS:2248, WLLC:2248.

CLSA:2127 Global Manuscript Cultures 3 s.h.

Manuscripts and global manuscript cultures from a comparative, interdisciplinary perspective; history of the book in the East and West; diverse material supports, physical formats, and written layouts of manuscripts of the 1st to 19th centuries, including social and cultural contexts; manuscript traditions of particular cultural spheres (Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, India, East Asia) and historical processes of diffusion, remediation, and obsolescence. Taught in English. GE: Historical Perspectives. Same as JPNS:2127.

CLSA:2144 Engineering and Technology in the Ancient World 3 s.h.

Technologies developed and used in the ancient world—primarily in Greece and Rome, also in Egypt and the Ancient Near East; agriculture and food preparation; construction and architecture; technologies related to warfare. Same as HIST:2444.

CLSA:2151 Roman Law, Order, and Crime 3 s.h.

Case-based introduction to Roman law; principles of Roman law ranging from standards of evidence to trial procedures to various topics in civil and criminal law, including family law and the law of delict. Same as HIST:2431.

CLSA:2178 Training the Citizen: Philosophy as a Civic Virtue 3 s.h.

Practices of self-care from a variety of ancient Greco-Roman authors; practice of philosophy; opportunity to publicly engage with elementary students as mentors; readings and writing assignments focus on primary questions (What do ancient philosophers mean by "caring for yourself"? What are the purposes of philosophical self-care?); why it is more accurate to call ancient philosophy a way of life than a study; why Greek and Roman religious beliefs are inseparable from philosophy; what metaphors dominate and guide philosophical inquiry.

CLSA:2226 Ancient Art from the Great Pyramids of Egypt to the Colosseum in Rome 3 s.h.

Art and architecture of the Mediterranean world (ca. 3500 B.C.E.) to death of Constantine (337 C.E.); Egyptian, Cycladic, Minoan, Mycenaean, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman cultures; artistic responses to life and death; impact of breakthroughs in technology and engineering on visual culture; role of art in empire building; interrelationships of art, politics, religion. GE: Historical Perspectives. Same as ARTH:2320.

CLSA:2330 Egyptian and Ancient Near Eastern Art 3 s.h.

Art and architecture of Egypt and the Near East (ca. 3500 B.C.E.) to advent of Islam; Egyptian, Sumerian, Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian cultures; artistic responses to life and death; impact of breakthroughs in technology and engineering on visual culture; role of art in empire building; interrelationships of art, politics, and religion. Same as ARTH:2330.

CLSA:2340 The Power of Art in Greece and Rome 3 s.h.

Art and architecture of Greece and Rome (ca. 3000 B.C.E.) to death of Constantine (337 C.E.); Cycladic, Minoan, Mycenaean, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman cultures; artistic responses to life and death; impact of breakthroughs in technology and engineering on visual culture; role of art in empire building; interrelationships of art, politics, and religion. Same as ARTH:2340.

CLSA:2444 Cities of the Bible 2 s.h.

Survey of the history and archaeology of key biblical cities and the contributions they made to the formation of the Bible. Same as RELS:2444.

CLSA:2461 Middle East and Mediterranean: Alexander to Suleiman 3 s.h.

GE: Historical Perspectives. Same as HIST:2461, RELS:2361.

CLSA:2482 Ancient Mediterranean Religions 3 s.h.

Introduction to major religious traditions of ancient Mediterranean world; Mesopotamia, the Levant (Hebrew Bible), Egypt, Greece, and Rome; central aspects of mythology, ritual, and archaeology, individually and in comparative perspective; ancient Judaism and Christianity considered in their various cultural contexts; basic concepts for understanding cultural exchange; fundamental theories in the study of religion. GE: Values and Culture. Same as RELS:2182.

CLSA:2489 Jerusalem: The Holy City 3 s.h.

Religious, political, and cultural history of Jerusalem over three millennia as a symbolic focus of three faiths—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; integration of several digital learning technologies, including digital reconstructions and Google Earth tours of Jerusalem. Same as RELS:2289.

CLSA:2552 Atheism, Agnosticism, and Religion 3 s.h.

History and analysis of religious skepticism in Western culture from the classical period through modern times. Same as RELS:2552.

CLSA:2651 Gender and Sexuality in the Ancient World 3 s.h.

Survey of gender and sexuality issues in the social, political, and religious life of ancient Greece and Rome; evidence from literature, the visual arts, archaeology. Requirements: completion of GE CLAS Core Rhetoric and sophomore standing. GE: Values and Culture. Same as GWSS:2651.

CLSA:2800 Race and Ethnicity in the Ancient Mediterranean World 3 s.h.

Exploration of the history of race and ethnicity in the ancient world; how people were defined, stereotyped, and outcast by Greeks and Roman culture. GE: Diversity and Inclusion.

CLSA:2901 First-Year Sanskrit: First Semester 4 s.h.

Grammar, basic vocabulary; elementary readings. Offered fall semesters of even years. Requirements: undergraduate standing. GE: World Languages First Level Proficiency. Same as SOAS:2901.

CLSA:2902 First-Year Sanskrit: Second Semester 4 s.h.

Readings in epic and story literature. Offered spring semesters of odd years. Requirements: undergraduate standing. GE: World Languages Second Level Proficiency. Same as SOAS:2902.

CLSA:2913 Power, Class, and Gender 3 s.h.

Introduction to ancient Greek and Roman approaches to leadership, specifically political, military, and household; identification of Greek and Roman theories and practices of leadership to strengthen understanding of leadership; examination of self-leadership through reflection on Greco-Roman ideals of self-control, justice, and ethics; aspects of group leadership, such as the balance between social hierarchy and teamwork as well as group decision making.

CLSA:3016 Myth Makers of the Classical World 3 s.h.

Continuation of CLSA:2016; emphasis on minor Greek and Roman sources and understanding ancient authors' and artists' motivations for depicting myths; students adapt ancient myths to modern world through writing exercises. Prerequisites: CLSA:2016.

CLSA:3020 Doctors and Patients 3 s.h.

How medicine increasingly requires that physicians consider subjective experience of patients inside health care system; what it means to be the object of medical treatment; exploration of global historical experience of diseased body within health care systems from antiquity to modern world using texts from doctors and patients; interaction between roles of doctor and patient—two individuals at center of health care literature. Requirements: completion of GE CLAS Core Rhetoric. Same as GHS:3021.

CLSA:3148 Barbarians and the Fall of Rome 3 s.h.

Did barbarian hordes cause the decline and fall of the Roman Empire? In the span of just a few hundred years, the Roman empire of the Mediterranean world was transformed in terms of culture, religion, and the peoples that inhabited it, but we can't place all the blame for the so-called fall of Rome on the Huns, Visigoths, Vandals, and other migrating peoples; students explore textual, visual, and archaeological evidence for the spread of these “barbarian” cultures, the sacking of Rome, and the late antique transition to the Middle Ages from 200-800 C.E. Same as HIST:3448.

CLSA:3227 Classical Greek Art 3 s.h.

Art, sacred architecture from early Classical through late fourth century B.C.E.; Athens in the Golden Age. Same as ARTH:3330.

CLSA:3232 Art of Early Rome: Patrons and Politics 3 s.h.

Examination of architecture, sculpture, and painting in central Italy from c. 800 B.C. to the end of the Roman Republic in 27 B.C.; art in the service of social ideology and political propaganda; funerary art and its relationship to the living; artistic interactions between Etruria, Greece, and Rome. Same as ARTH:3350.

CLSA:3233 Art of the Ancient Roman Empire 3 s.h.

Major developments in architecture, sculpture, and painting from the ascension of Augustus to sole ruler in 31 B.C. to the death of Constantine in A.D. 337; influence of individual emperors on the development of artistic forms; relationship between public and private art; interdependency of Rome and the provinces. Same as ARTH:3360.

CLSA:3234 Houses, Brothels, and Tombs: Life and Death in Ancient Pompeii 3 s.h.

Art and architecture, as documents of ancient society and religion in towns destroyed by Mount Vesuvius in C.E. 79. Same as ARTH:3370.

CLSA:3235 Greek Archaeology and Ethnohistory 3 s.h.

Archaeology and ethnology of the Greek world, from end of Bronze Age to late Roman Empire; sociocultural processes that influence development and persistence of Greek civilization. Same as ANTH:3276.

CLSA:3240 Roman Archaeology 3 s.h.

Archaeology and ethnology of Roman civilization from Iron Age eighth-century occupation of the Palatine Hill to the end of the Roman empire in the West, A.D. 476. Same as ANTH:3277.

CLSA:3247 Banned from the Bible: Pseudepigrapha and Apocrypha 3 s.h.

Introduction to biblical Pseudepigrapha and Apocrypha; writings dating from third century B.C.E. to third century C.E. fictionally attributed to characters in the Hebrew Bible and New Testament, or written as though they originated in the First or Second Temple periods, not included in Jewish or major Christian canons of scripture; English translations of documents from this period; key themes and interpretative techniques common throughout biblical texts that provide tremendous insight into the worlds that produced the Hebrew Bible and New Testament. Same as RELS:3247.

CLSA:3250 Greek Vase Painting 3 s.h.

Greek ceramics as documents of religious beliefs, mythology, and daily life 1000-300 B.C.E. Same as ARTH:3340.

CLSA:3288 Shakespeare's Romans: The Ancient World Meets the Elizabethan Stage arr.

London was a distant outpost of the Roman empire, but the Romans had an outsized influence on Shakespeare's plays and poems; students explore those works and their sources in classical authors, including Ovid and Plutarch. English majors and English and Creative Writing majors may apply this course to the following area and/or period requirement. AREA: Medieval and Early Modern Literature and Culture. PERIOD: Early Literatures Through 17th Century. Same as ENGL:3288.

CLSA:3401 Ancient Egypt and the Ancient Near East 3 s.h.

Survey of political, economic, religious, and social change in ancient Egypt from ca. 3000 B.C.E. until its conquest by Persia, and of the ancient Near East from ca. 3000 B.C.E. until Alexander the Great's conquests. Same as HIST:3401.

CLSA:3404 The World of Ancient Greece 3 s.h.

Survey of Greece history from ca. 2000 B.C. to 300 B.C.; Minoan, Mycenaean, and Greek society and culture; contact between Greek mainland and eastern Mediterranean cultures; development of the polis; political developments throughout the period; readings include a variety of sources in translation as well as modern interpretations; methodological problems in studying ancient Greece including interpretation of ancient historiography and using evidence from art, archaeology, and literature; knowledge of ancient Greek not required. Same as HIST:3404.

CLSA:3416 Greek Religion and Society 3 s.h.

From Bronze Age to the Hellenistic period, in context of Mediterranean culture; evidence such as choral hymn, inscribed prayers, magical curses inscribed on lead, architecture, sculpted offerings to the gods. Same as RELS:3716.

CLSA:3443 Pagans and Christians: The Church from Jesus to Muhammad 3 s.h.

Introduction to history of early Christianity, from time of Jesus to rise of Islam; focus on major movements, intellectuals, institutions in this period; growth of Christianity in different geographical areas including the Middle East, Greece, Western Europe, Africa; Christian relations with Jews, pagans, Muslims; conversion; orthodoxy, heresy, making of biblical canon; martyrdom; women and gender roles; asceticism, monasticism, sexuality; church and state; theological controversy and schisms; cult of saints; the Holy Land and pilgrimage. Same as RELS:3243.

CLSA:3445 Mythology of Otherworldly Journeys 3 s.h.

Examination of mythology of otherworldly journeys from earliest religions to Hellenistic period; historical context; comparison for common themes in their evolution over time; directed readings of mythological texts dealing with otherworldly journeys; ways in which past cultures confronted larger mysteries of life and death. Same as RELS:3245.

CLSA:3514 Roman Religion and Society 3 s.h.

Roman religion of the Republic, from ca. 753 B.C.E. to 44 B.C.E.; highly organized priesthood of politically powerful men and women in religious colleges in Rome who moderated and interpreted city-wide religious practice; how Romans worshipped their gods; Roman theology—what Romans thought about the divine world—and their religious response to crises; evidence from festival calendar, temple architecture, religious art, poetry, inscriptions, plays, and various other texts.

CLSA:3520 Religious Violence and Nationalism 3 s.h.

Study of religious ideologies that lead to violence in the name of nationality throughout history and in modern times. Same as RELS:3520.

CLSA:3596 The Archaeology of Ancient Egypt 3 s.h.

Introduction to the archaeology of ancient Egypt from predynastic times to Roman Egypt, including monumental architecture; patterns of everyday life; social, economic, and demographic considerations; history of archaeology in Egypt. Same as ANTH:3275.

CLSA:3742 Word Power: Building English Vocabulary 3 s.h.

Analysis of unfamiliar English words through knowledge of the history and meaning of word parts. Same as WRIT:3742.

CLSA:3750 Medical and Technical Terminology 2 s.h.

Memorization of word stems and basic medical terms, practice on computer terminal; no formal classes.

CLSA:3821 City of Athens: Bronze Age to Roman World 3 s.h.

Athens from Bronze Age to end of Roman period; topics include the city's role in development of political democracy and religion, as well as the art and archaeology of the city.

CLSA:3836 Food in Ancient Mediterranean Society 3 s.h.

Practices and values influenced by consumption and production of food in ancient Mediterranean societies; varied topics, including methods of food production and distribution, hierarchies of status as associated with food, food and ethnic identity, food and health, food and religion; focus on classical Greek and Roman society, Egypt, the ancient Near East, and Persia. Recommendations: familiarity with Greek and Roman civilization and history. Same as ANTH:3204, HIST:3436.

CLSA:3900 Special Topics in Classics 1-3 s.h.

Examination of a specific topic of interest related to classics.

CLSA:3901 Second-Year Sanskrit: First Semester 3 s.h.

Readings in epic and puranic texts. Offered fall semesters of odd years. Requirements: undergraduate standing. GE: World Languages Second Level Proficiency. Same as SOAS:3901.

CLSA:3902 Second-Year Sanskrit: Second Semester 3 s.h.

The Bhagavad Gita and related religious/philosophical texts. Offered spring semesters of even years. Requirements: undergraduate standing. GE: World Languages Fourth Level Proficiency. Same as SOAS:3902.

CLSA:3920 Video Games and the Ancient World 3 s.h.

Examination of ancient society, culture, and sources through in-class game play and discussion of video games.

CLSA:3979 Undergraduate Translation Workshop 3 s.h.

Translation exercises, discussion of translation works in progress; alternative strategies for translation projects. Same as ENGL:3850, TRNS:3179.

CLSA:3980 Teaching in the Classics 1,3 s.h.

Instructional approaches and issues in teaching ancient language and civilization at secondary and college levels. Prerequisites: CLSG:1002 or CLSL:1002.

CLSA:3982 Graduation Portfolio 0 s.h.

Submission of final graduation portfolio required for classical languages and ancient civilization majors. Requirements: classical languages or ancient civilization major, and senior standing.

CLSA:4085 Postbaccalaureate Seminar 0 s.h.

Current work of postbaccalaureate students; preparation of writing sample and portfolio. Requirements: postbaccalaureate certificate enrollment.

CLSA:4090 Private Assignments arr.

Readings in classical literature in translation.

CLSA:4095 Honors Readings arr.

Discussion, readings, research for a paper on ancient civilization. Requirements: ancient civilization major.

CLSA:4106 Warfare in Ancient Mediterranean Society 3 s.h.

Same as HIST:4406.

CLSA:4181 History of Western Medicine 3 s.h.

Development and systematization of medical thought and practice in European Middle Ages from late antiquity to Renaissance; transmission of ancient Greek and Arabic medieval thought into Latin; rise of hospitals; development of medical schools; influence of Christianity; special attention to university curricula (e.g., Articella, anatomy, semiotics, prognosis, therapeutics).

CLSA:4400 The Roman Empire 3 s.h.

History of Roman empire from assassination of Julius Caesar through 5th century A.D.; political, economic, cultural, and social developments from the transition to imperial power to the shift of power from west to east. Same as HIST:4400.

CLSA:4403 Alexander the Great 3 s.h.

History of Alexander the Great and the generals who succeeded him in ruling the lands he conquered; military, political, and social history. Same as HIST:4403.

CLSA:4452 The Dead Sea Scrolls 3 s.h.

Introduction to the Dead Sea Scrolls; reading of the scrolls in English translation; examination of Qumran site archaeology; survey of broader sociopolitical context of Second Temple Judaism (586 B.C.E. to 135 C.E.) out of which the scrolls emerged. Same as RELS:4352.

CLSA:4501 Archaeological Methodology and Field Research 3 s.h.

Beginning skills in archaeological site surveying and excavation, lab work, record keeping, pottery identification and classification, data visualization; basic archaeological theory and field methods for excavation, record keeping, and pottery identification for students with no prior archaeological experience; advanced archaeological field methods for students with prior archaeological field experience.

CLSA:4502 Archaeology and History of Judea 3 s.h.

History of the ancient province of Judea (modern Israel) from Early Bronze Age to Greco-Roman period.

CLSA:4901 Biblical Hebrew I 3-4 s.h.

Same as RELS:4001.

CLSA:4902 Biblical Hebrew II 4 s.h.

Same as RELS:4002.

CLSA:5010 Proseminar in Classics 1 s.h.

Texts, techniques, and trends in classical scholarship; areas and subtopics of classical scholarship.

CLSA:5151 Roman Law, Order, and Crime 3 s.h.

Case-based introduction to Roman law; principles of Roman law ranging from standards of evidence to trial procedures to various topics in civil and criminal law, including family law and the law of delict. Recommendations: some background in Roman history. Same as HIST:5431.

CLSA:5903 Biblical Aramaic 4 s.h.

This course introduces the basics of Biblical Aramaic grammar and syntax and provides an introduction to the Biblical lexicon. There will be extensive grammatical exercises, both in class and at home, as well as frequent opportunities to apply grammatical and lexical knowledge to the Biblical text. Recommendations: Biblical Hebrew recommended. Same as RELS:5001.

CLSA:5904 Targumic Aramaic 4 s.h.

Language used by Targums—Aramaic translations of the Hebrew Bible—for use in the study of interpretative traditions of later Jewish groups. Same as RELS:5002.

CLSA:6200 Graduate Seminar in Ancient Art 3 s.h.

Key themes and issues in ancient art. Same as ARTH:6300.

CLSA:6910 Graduate Pedagogy 1 s.h.

Pedagogical theories on teaching classics in translation, practical application of those theories; classroom management, grading, syllabus development; university, college, and department regulations. Requirements: graduate standing, and teaching assistant or instructor in classics courses taught in English.

CLSA:7114 Slavery and Social Death: 1200 B.C.E. to 1865 C.E. 3 s.h.

Exploration of various slave systems in antiquity, the middle ages, and modernity in terms of their motivations, utilization, and broader social, economic, and political implications; use of literary sources and archaeological remains to investigate slave cultures in ancient Near East and Egypt, Jewish exploitation of enslaved persons, and use of chattel slavery in Greek, Roman, early Christian, and Islamic societies; antebellum U.S. slavery. Same as ANTH:7414, HIST:7414.