Director: Anjali D. Deshpande

The Master of Public Health (M.P.H) is recognized as the primary professional degree in public health. The objective of Iowa's M.P.H. program is to provide education and practical training in public health to students who will be leaders in their respective communities. The program is appropriate for individuals who already have professional experience and/or training in public health as well as for those whose expertise lies outside of public health.

Students may earn the Master of Public Health (M.P.H.) as a single degree, or they may pursue one of several joint degree programs. The College of Public Health offers joint M.P.H./professional degree programs with the Carver College of Medicine and the Colleges of Law and Pharmacy. It also offers two programs in collaboration with the College of Veterinary Science at Iowa State University. See "M.P.H. for Practicing Veterinarians" and descriptions of the joint degree programs under Joint Degrees in this section of the Catalog.

In addition, the college collaborates with the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences to offer joint B.A. or B.S./M.P.H. programs for undergraduate students; see "Joint B.A. or B.S./M.P.H. Degrees" under Joint Degrees in this section of the Catalog.

The Master of Public Health program is offered by the College of Public Health; the degree is awarded by the Graduate College.

The Master of Public Health requires 42-45 s.h. of graduate credit, depending on a student's choice of specialization. Students must choose one of six subprograms: community and behavioral health, epidemiology, health communication, occupational and environmental health, policy, or quantitative methods.

Degree requirements include a core course in public health practice and in each of the five core disciplines of public health (epidemiology, biostatistics, environmental health, health policy and management, and social and behavioral sciences); a practicum; a set of content-specific required courses; and a set of content-specific electives. Students in the epidemiology subprogram must complete a bioscience course. A final written report with oral presentation or a poster presentation related to the practicum constitutes the final examination.

All M.P.H. students complete the course work listed under "Common Requirements." In addition, students complete the course work listed for their chosen subprogram.

Common Requirements

The following course work is required for all M.P.H. students. Students must earn a B-minus or higher in each core course. Students may repeat courses to achieve this standard.

Core Courses

All of these (18 s.h.):
BIOS:4120Introduction to Biostatistics3
CBH:4105Introduction to Health Promotion and Disease Prevention3
CPH:4101Introduction to Public Health3
EPID:4400Epidemiology I: Principles3
HMP:4000Introduction to the U.S. Health Care System3
OEH:4240Global Environmental Health3

Practicum

The practicum is a fieldwork experience in which students show proficiency in applying academic principles in community settings. There are many practicum opportunities for M.P.H. students locally, nationally, and internationally. The practicum is the capstone of the M.P.H. program.

Before they register for and begin the practicum, students must choose an approved topic and must complete most of their M.P.H. course work, including all of the six M.P.H. core courses. A final written report with an oral presentation or a poster presentation is required. The practicum constitutes the final examination for the M.P.H. degree.

CPH:7000M.P.H. Practicum Experience3

Community and Behavioral Health Subprogram

The Master of Public Health with community and behavioral health subprogram requires 42 s.h. of graduate credit. The subprogram is offered by the Department of Community and Behavioral Health (College of Public Health).

The subprogram prepares public health practitioners for a variety of positions related to community development, health program implementation, and health education. Students learn how to design, implement, and evaluate evidence-based interventions directed toward identified public health problems in populations.

A bachelor's degree in the social and behavioral sciences is good preparation for this program, but students come from a variety of educational backgrounds. Preference is given to applicants who have professional experience.

In addition to the M.P.H. course work listed under "Common Requirements" above, the community and behavioral health subprogram requires the following courses.

Community and Behavioral Health Subprogram Core

Students earn 12 s.h. in the required subprogram core.

Theory
This course:
CBH:5220Health Behavior and Health Education3
Community and Society
One of these:
CBH:5235Community-Based Participatory Research3
CBH:6230Health Equity, Disparities, and Social Justice3
Intervention
One of these:
CBH:6205Designing and Implementing Interventions3
CBH:6220Health Communication Campaigns3
Methods
One of these:
CBH:5305Evaluation I: Approaches and Applications3
CBH:5310Qualitative Research for Public Health3
CBH:5420Communicating with the Community3
CBH:6335Research Methods in Community and Behavioral Health3

Community and Behavioral Health Electives

At least 9 s.h. chosen from these:
ANTH:6141Medical Anthropology and Social Theory3
CBH:3150Media and Health3
CBH:4140Feminist Activism and Global Health3
CBH:5230Public Health Issues in Overweight Management3
CBH:5435Substance Abuse Prevention and Early Intervention3
CBH:5440Prevention and Early Intervention of Mental Health Disorders3
CBH:6115/ANTH:6115Ethnographic Field Methods3
CBH:6220Health Communication Campaigns3
CBH:6335Research Methods in Community and Behavioral Health3
CBH:6405Maternal, Child, and Family Health3
CBH:6410Special Topicsarr.
CBH:6415Independent Study in Community and Behavioral Healtharr.
GEOG:3505Foundations of GIS3
CBH:3102Medical Anthropology3
CBH:6210Health Communication3

Epidemiology Subprogram

The Master of Public Health with epidemiology subprogram requires 42 s.h. of graduate credit. The subprogram is offered by the Department of Epidemiology (College of Public Health).

The subprogram focuses on fundamental epidemiological concepts and methods and provides training in the use of public health data and methods for disease assessment and in methods for evaluating the need and outcome of programs and interventions. Graduates of the program work in public health departments and other health care settings.

Epidemiology subprogram students are required to attend departmental seminars and journal club. They also must present one scientific poster at an international, national, regional, state, university, or departmental poster session.

In addition to the M.P.H. course work listed under "Common Requirements" above, the epidemiology subprogram requires the following courses.

Epidemiology Subprogram Core

All of these (14 s.h.):
EPID:5241Statistical Methods in Epidemiology4
EPID:5540Surveillance Mechanisms and Applications: Cancer and Other Registries2
EPID:5580Public Health Laboratory Techniques1
EPID:5600Introduction to Epidemiology Data Management and Analysis3
EPID:6400Epidemiology II: Advanced Methods4
One of these (2-3 s.h.):
EPID:4450Public Health Data2
EPID:4990Practicing Evidence-Based Public Health3
Bioscience—one of these (3-4 s.h.):
PATH:5270Pathogenesis of Major Human Diseases3
PATH:8133Introduction to Human Pathology for Graduate Students4

Students who already have completed a course equivalent to one of the bioscience courses, PATH:5270 Pathogenesis of Major Human Diseases or PATH:8133 Introduction to Human Pathology for Graduate Students, may substitute an additional elective.

Epidemiology Electives

Additional approved elective course work must be taken to complete the 42 s.h. total required for the M.P.H. At least 3 s.h. of elective credit must be earned in courses offered by the Department of Epidemiology (prefix EPID) or in one of the following biostatistics courses. 

BIOS:6210Applied Survival Analysis3
BIOS:6310Introductory Longitudinal Data Analysis3

Health Communication Subprogram

The Master of Public Health with health communication subprogram requires 42 s.h. of graduate credit. The subprogram is offered by the Department of Community and Behavioral Health (College of Public Health).

The subprogram provides opportunities for students to develop knowledge and skill in designing, evaluating, and implementing effective communication strategies and messages that speak to the health needs of diverse audiences. The program addresses clinician-patient interaction, family communication, group and organizational communication, and mass media and web-based campaigns.

In addition to the M.P.H. course work listed under "Common Requirements" above, the health communication subprogram requires the following courses.

Health Communication Subprogram Core

Health Communication
All of these:
CBH:3150/JMC:3150Media and Health3
CBH:6210/COMM:6210Health Communication3
CBH:6220/COMM:6220Health Communication Campaigns3
COMM:6371Communication Theory3
Community and Behavioral Health
Three of these:
CBH:5220Health Behavior and Health Education3
CBH:5305Evaluation I: Approaches and Applications3
CBH:5310Qualitative Research for Public Health3
CBH:6115/ANTH:6115Ethnographic Field Methods3
CBH:6205Designing and Implementing Interventions3
GEOG:3505Foundations of GIS3

Occupational and Environmental Health Subprogram

The Master of Public Health with occupational and environmental health subprogram requires 42 s.h. of graduate credit. The subprogram is offered by the Department of Occupational and Environmental Health (College of Public Health).

The subprogram provides students with a broad perspective on public health and career preparation for a variety of professional positions in occupational and environmental health. Public health experience provides desirable background for this subprogram.

In addition to the M.P.H. course work listed under "Common Requirements" above, the occupational and environmental health subprogram requires the following courses.

Occupational and Environmental Health Subprogram Core

Students earn 13 s.h. in the required subprogram core.

Students take OEH:5010 Occupational and Environmental Health Seminar three times: twice for 0 s.h. and once for 1 s.h. If completing the M.P.H. in a one-year course of study, OEH:5010 is taken two times: once for 0 s.h. and once for 1 s.h.

All of these (4 s.h.):
OEH:5010Occupational and Environmental Health Seminar0-1
OEH:5620Occupational Health3
Three of these (9 s.h.):
OEH:4210International Health3
OEH:4510Injury and Violence Prevention3
OEH:5410Occupational Safety3
OEH:5710Environmental Toxicology3
OEH:6110Rural Health and Agricultural Medicine3
OEH:6510Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology3

Occupational and Environmental Health Electives

Students can earn the remainder of credit for their degree in elective courses (8 s.h.) offered by a department in the College of Public Health. Courses offered by departments in other colleges at the University of Iowa can be applied toward a degree with approval of a student's advisor.

Faculty expertise in areas related to occupational and environmental health can assist students in their endeavors. Sample plans that outline how elective courses can be combined with required courses in a focused plan of study are as follows

Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology
EPID:6400Epidemiology II: Advanced Methods (elective)4
OEH:4260Global Water and Health (elective)3
OEH:5530Interpreting Occupational and Environmental Health Research (elective)2
OEH:6510Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology (required course)3
OEH:6520Injury Epidemiology (elective)3
Global Environmental Health
OEH:4210International Health (required course)3
OEH:4220U.S. and Global Environmental Health Policy (elective)3
OEH:4260Global Water and Health (elective)3
OEH:5710Environmental Toxicology (elective)3
Injury and Violence Prevention
OEH:4510Injury and Violence Prevention (required course)3
OEH:4530Global Road Safety (elective)3
OEH:6520Injury Epidemiology (elective)3
OEH:6530Epidemiology of Occupational Injuries (elective)3-4
Occupational Health
OEH:4310Occupational Ergonomics: Principles (elective)3
OEH:5410Occupational Safety (required course)3
OEH:6420Industrial Hygiene Fundamentals (elective)3
OEH:6430Assessing Physical Agent Hazards (elective)3
Rural Health and Safety
OEH:5410Occupational Safety (elective)3
OEH:6110Rural Health and Agricultural Medicine (required course)3
OEH:6120Current Topics in Agriculture and Rural Health (elective)0-1
OEH:6420Industrial Hygiene Fundamentals (elective)3
OEH:6520Injury Epidemiology (elective)3

Policy Subprogram

The Master of Public Health with policy subprogram requires 45 s.h. of graduate credit. The subprogram is offered by the Department of Health Management and Policy (College of Public Health).

The subprogram offers course work and applied learning experiences that prepare students for careers in health policy analysis, system and organizational planning, and program evaluation. Graduates of the program find positions in federal, state, and local government; professional associations; and private agencies. Varied academic backgrounds are appropriate preparation for this program, including business, liberal arts and sciences, and the health professions.

In addition to the M.P.H. course work listed under "Common Requirements" above, the policy and administration subprogram requires the following courses.

Policy Subprogram Core

All of these:
HMP:5610Health Policy3
HMP:5611Contemporary Issues in Health Policy0-1
HMP:5650Health Policy Analysis3
HMP:6610Legal Aspects of Health and Medical Care3
HMP:6750Seminar in Health Policy3

Policy Electives

At least 12 s.h. chosen from these:
HMP:5310Quantitative Management in Health Care2-3
HMP:5410Health Economics I3
HMP:5450Health Insurance and Managed Care3
HMP:5750Medicare and Medicaid Policy3
HMP:6710Federalism and Health Policy3
LAW:8562Health Law3
POLI:3100American State Politics3

Quantitative Methods Subprogram

The Master of Public Health with quantitative methods subprogram requires 42 s.h. of graduate credit. The subprogram is offered by the Department of Biostatistics (College of Public Health).

The subprogram is designed to train public health professionals who can provide leadership in the analysis of public health data and the design of studies for public health investigations. It is intended for individuals who are interested in public health and who have quantitative ability but not advanced mathematics training.

Applicants to the subprogram must meet all M.P.H. admission requirements; see Admission in this section of the Catalog. They also should have a cumulative g.p.a. of at least 3.00 and should have completed the following math and computer science course work: single variable calculus and matrix algebra, satisfied by one semester of calculus equivalent to AP Calculus AB and a high school algebra course involving matrices; and elementary computer programming instruction in any commonly used modern programming language (e.g., Python, Java, C++). Individuals who are admitted to the subprogram without having met all of these requirements must satisfy unmet requirements during their first semester of enrollment in the program.

In addition to the M.P.H. course work listed under "Common Requirements" above, the quantitative methods subprogram requires the following courses.

Quantitative Methods Subprogram Core

All of these (11 s.h.):
BIOS:5120Regression Modeling and ANOVA in the Health Sciences3
BIOS:5310Research Data Management3
BIOS:5510Biostatistical Computing2
BIOS:6110Applied Categorical Data Analysis3

Quantitative Methods Electives

At least 10 s.h. chosen from these:
BIOL:4213Bioinformatics4
BIOS:6210Applied Survival Analysis3
BIOS:6310Introductory Longitudinal Data Analysis3
BIOS:6610Statistical Methods in Clinical Trials3
BIOS:7600Advanced Biostatistics Seminar0-3
MICR:2157General Microbiology5
MICR:3147Immunology and Human Disease3
STAT:3100Introduction to Mathematical Statistics I3
STAT:3101Introduction to Mathematical Statistics II3
STAT:3210Experimental Design and Analysis3
STAT:4100Mathematical Statistics I3
STAT:4101Mathematical Statistics II3
STAT:4200Statistical Methods and Computing3
STAT:4520Bayesian Statistics3
STAT:5100Statistical Inference I3
STAT:5101Statistical Inference II3
STAT:6540Applied Multivariate Analysis3
STAT:6560Applied Time Series Analysis3

Joint B.A. or B.S./M.P.H. Degrees

The College of Public Health collaborates with undergraduate programs to offer joint bachelor's degree/Master of Public Health programs for undergraduate students who would like to earn an M.P.H. degree. The joint programs permit students to count a limited amount of credit toward the requirements of both degrees, enabling them to begin the study of public health before they complete the bachelor's degree. Undergraduates can pursue a M.P.H. degree in the following subtracks: community and behavioral health, epidemiology, health communication, policy, occupational and environmental health, or quantitative methods. Undergraduate students work with their undergraduate advisor and the College of Public Health Undergrad to Grad (U2G) coordinator to determine eligibility.

Undergraduate students must apply to each of the programs. Students should consult with their undergraduate major advisor and their College of Public Health U2G coordinator. For more information, visit Undergrad to Grad on the Master of Public Health website.

M.P.H. for Practicing Veterinarians

The Master of Public Health for practicing veterinarians requires a minimum of 42 s.h. of graduate credit. The program is presented through a collaboration between the University of Iowa College of Public Health and the College of Veterinary Medicine at Iowa State University and is offered primarily by distance learning. It enables students to prepare for new career opportunities and equips them to respond to public health challenges such as zoonotic diseases, food security and foodborne illnesses, bioterrorism, and environmental health.

Students participate in two summer institutes, one on each campus during consecutive summers (two weeks in May and June); the rest of the program is Internet-based, so students may complete requirements at times that fit their schedules. Specific courses are required each semester of the program.

The M.P.H. for practicing veterinarians requires the following course work.

M.P.H. Common Requirements

Students must complete courses listed under "Common Requirements" (core courses and practicum) in the Master of Public Health Requirements section.

All of these (21 s.h.):
CPH:6700Public Health Emergency Preparedness for Veterinarians and Other Public Health Disciplines2
EPID:5200Principles of Public Health Informatics3
EPID:5300Food Safety3
EPID:5320Exotic and Emerging Diseases of Animals1
EPID:5470Applied Veterinary Epidemiology/Biostatistics3
EPID:5550Diagnostic Microbiology for Epidemiology3
EPID:5570Zoonotic Diseases3
OEH:6110Rural Health and Agricultural Medicine3

Joint M.P.H./D.V.M.

The joint Master of Public Health/Doctor of Veterinary Medicine is offered by the University of Iowa College of Public Health and the College of Veterinary Medicine at Iowa State University. It requires a minimum of 42 s.h. in addition to the requirements of the D.V.M. degree (see College of Veterinary Medicine in the Iowa State University catalog). The program prepares students for work as state veterinarians, as college and university faculty members, in local and state departments of public health, in the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, in state agricultural departments, and for public health positions in the military.

Separate application to each degree program is required; applicants must be admitted to both programs before they may be admitted to the joint degree program. For M.P.H. admission requirements, see the Master of Public Health Admission section.

The joint M.P.H./D.V.M. requires the following course work.

M.P.H. Common Requirements

Students must complete courses listed under "Common Requirements" (core courses and practicum) in the Master of Public Health Requirements section.

M.P.H. Electives

Students must earn at least 9 s.h. from the following courses.
CPH:6700Public Health Emergency Preparedness for Veterinarians and Other Public Health Disciplines2-3
EPID:5200Principles of Public Health Informatics3
EPID:5300Food Safety3
EPID:5470Applied Veterinary Epidemiology/Biostatistics3
EPID:5550Diagnostic Microbiology for Epidemiology (offered by distance education)3
EPID:5570Zoonotic Diseases3
EPID:6550Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases (offered by distance education)3
OEH:4510Injury and Violence Prevention (offered by distance education)3
OEH:6110Rural Health and Agricultural Medicine3

Required D.V.M. Courses

All of these (Iowa State University courses):
Public Health and the Role of the Veterinary Profession (VMPM 388)3
Small Animal Internal Medicine (VCS 436)2
Infectious Diseases and Preventive Medicine (VMPM 437)3
Pharmacology and Therapeutics (BMS 443)3
Case Studies IV (VMPM 378)1

Joint M.P.H./J.D.

The joint Master of Public Health/Juris Doctor requires a minimum of 42 s.h. of graduate credit in addition to the requirements of the J.D. degree. The program helps students develop special expertise in public health legal issues. It is designed to train qualified students for leadership roles in both the public and private sectors. Separate application to each degree program is required; applicants must be admitted to both programs before they may be admitted to the joint degree program.

The joint M.P.H./J.D. requires the following course work.

M.P.H. Common Requirements

Students must complete courses listed under "Common Requirements" (core courses and practicum) in the Master of Public Health Requirements section.

M.P.H. Electives

Students earn 9 s.h. in elective courses chosen from one of the following public health areas: aging studies; biostatistics; community and behavioral health; epidemiology; global health; health policy; maternal, child, and family health; nutrition and exercise; or occupational and environmental health. Students choose electives in consultation with their advisors in the College of Law and the College of Public Health.

J.D. Requirements

Students in the joint M.P.H./J.D. program must complete the curriculum of the J.D. program; see College of Law in the Catalog. Students must be enrolled in the College of Law to take College of Law courses.

Courses That Count Toward Both Degrees

Students may count up to 12 s.h. earned in the following College of Law courses toward the M.P.H. degree.

LAW:8105Administrative Law3
LAW:8407Topics in Employee Benefits Lawarr.
LAW:8421Employment Law2-3
LAW:8433Environmental Law2-3
LAW:8467Family Law3-4
LAW:8562Health Law2-3
LAW:8622International Environmental Law3
LAW:8670Labor Law3-4
LAW:8742Negotiations1-3
LAW:8751Nonprofit Organizational Effectiveness I3
LAW:8752Nonprofit Organizational Effectiveness II3
LAW:8887State and Local Government1-3
LAW:9413Health and Elder Law Practicum1-3

Joint M.P.H./M.D.

The joint Master of Public Health/Doctor of Medicine requires a minimum of 42 s.h. of graduate credit in addition to the requirements of the M.D. degree. Students who complete the program enjoy expanded career opportunities and are well prepared to apply the principles of medicine and public health in their work. Separate application to each degree program is required; applicants must be admitted to both programs before they may be admitted to the joint program.

The joint M.P.H./M.D. requires the following course work.

M.P.H. Common Requirements

Students must complete courses listed under "Common Requirements" (core courses and practicum) in the Master of Public Health Requirements section.

M.P.H. Electives

Students earn 9 s.h. in elective courses chosen from one of the following public health areas: biostatistics, community and behavioral health, epidemiology, health communication, health policy, occupational and environmental health. Students choose electives in consultation with their advisors in the Carver College of Medicine and the College of Public Health.

M.D. Requirements

Students in the joint M.P.H./M.D. program must complete the curriculum of the M.D. program; see Doctor of Medicine (Carver College of Medicine) in the Catalog.

Courses That Count Toward Both Degrees

IM:8301Inpatient Internal Medicinearr.
IM:8302Outpatient Internal Medicine3-4
MED:8213Healthcare Ethics, Law, and Policy2
MED:8301Community-Based Primary Care (up to 10 s.h.)arr.

Joint M.P.H./Pharm.D.

The joint Master of Public Health/Doctor of Pharmacy requires 42 s.h. of graduate credit in addition to the requirements of the Pharm.D. degree. The program helps students develop expertise in public health related to pharmacotherapy, health promotion, disease prevention, and medication safety.

Graduates of the program may work in areas of interest common to pharmacy and public health, such as spread and treatment of disease, community health, and immunology; bioterrorism, terrorism, and preparedness; genetics; insurance; managed care; family and juvenile health; and protection of special populations. Employment opportunities are available in hospitals and clinics and with health care providers; private practice; insurance and managed care organizations; local, county, state, and federal government; public health governmental agencies; and colleges and universities.

Separate application to each degree program is required; applicants must be admitted to both programs before they may be admitted to the joint degree program.

The joint M.P.H./Pharm.D. requires the following course work.

M.P.H. Common Requirements

Students must complete courses listed under "Common Requirements" (core courses and practicum) in the Master of Public Health Requirements section.

M.P.H. Electives

Students select electives totaling 9 s.h. from one of the following public health areas: biostatistics, community and behavioral health, epidemiology, health communication, health policy, or occupational and environmental health. Electives are chosen in consultation with the student's advisors in the Colleges of Pharmacy and Public Health.

Pharm.D. Requirements

Students in the joint M.P.H./Pharm.D. program must complete the curriculum of the Pharm.D. program; see the College of Pharmacy section of the Catalog. Students must be enrolled in the College of Pharmacy in order to take College of Pharmacy courses.

Courses That Count Toward Both Degrees

Students may count up to 12 s.h. earned in the following Pharm.D. courses toward the M.P.H. degree.

PHAR:8105Social Aspects of Pharmacy Care2
PHAR:8204Pharmacy Practice Lab IV (1 s.h. counts toward both degrees )2
PHAR:8241Endocrinology, Ophthalmology, Women's and Men's Health Therapeutics2
PHAR:8243Cardiovascular Therapeutics2
PHAR:8308Pharmaceutical Economics and Insurance3
PHAR:8343Infectious Disease Therapeutics2

Applicants to the M.P.H. program must apply through the Schools of Public Health Application Service (SOPHAS); they also must apply for admission to the Graduate College through the University of Iowa Office of Admissions. Applicants must submit scores on the Graduate Record Exam (GRE) General Test, LSAT, DAT, VCAT, GMAT, or another professional placement exam; scores must be at or above the median scores for test takers applying to similar programs. For detailed application information, visit Prospective Students on the Master of Public Health website.

Applicants to the M.P.H. program must have successfully completed one semester each of college algebra and biology.

Applicants whose first language is not English and who do not hold a bachelor's degree from an accredited institution in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada (except Quebec), Australia, or New Zealand must score at least 100 (Internet-based) on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). Applicants who score 81-99 (Internet-based) are required to take English fluency courses. Applicants who score below 81 are not considered for admission.

Applicants must meet the admission requirements of the Graduate College; see the Manual of Rules and Regulations of the Graduate College.

Students may enter the M.P.H. program in fall and summer. Application deadline for fall entrance to the M.P.H. program is April 15; application deadline for summer entrance is April 1.

Application deadline for the M.P.H. for practicing veterinarians is March 1.

Students may enter the M.P.H. joint programs in fall, spring, and summer. Contact the individual joint programs for deadline information.

A limited number of modest tuition awards are available each year for M.P.H. students. For information on financing education through jobs, grants, and loans, contact the University's Office of Student Financial Aid.

For more information about careers in public health, visit Careers on the Master of Public Health website or This is Public Health online.