Graduate degrees: M.A. in educational policy and leadership studies; Ed.S. in educational policy and leadership studies; Ph.D. in educational policy and leadership studies

The Department of Educational Policy and Leadership Studies offers academic programs that prepare administrators, professional personnel, teachers, and researchers in the fields of educational leadership, higher education and student affairs, and schools, culture, and society. The department also offers combined programs with other College of Education departments and with other University of Iowa colleges.

The department offers graduate degree programs in three major areas within educational policy and leadership studies:

educational leadership (offered in the M.A., Ed.S., and Ph.D.), including an interdisciplinary program in school curriculum and assessment policy (offered in the Ed.S.);

higher education and student affairs (offered in the M.A., Ed.S., and Ph.D.); and

schools, culture, and society (offered in the M.A. and Ph.D.).

The areas are described below under "Graduate Study Areas," followed by information about each degree program.

Applicants for admission to graduate degree programs must meet the admission requirements of the Graduate College; see the Manual of Rules and Regulations of the Graduate College.

Graduate Study Areas

Educational Leadership

Study in educational leadership prepares individuals for leadership positions. In addition to graduate degree programs, the area includes principal licensure and superintendent endorsement. See the Master of ArtsSpecialist in Education, and the Doctor of Philosophy in this section of the Catalog.


To be eligible for recommendation by the University of Iowa for licensure in Iowa as a principal or superintendent/area education agency administrator, students must complete the appropriate program. The specific requirements for each program are available from the Department of Educational Policy and Leadership Studies and the Office of Student ServicesStudents who hold an M.A. must satisfy all core requirements and must complete at the University of Iowa the minimum semester-hour program for each licensure level they seek. Because each administrative license has specific requirements, candidates are required to plan their programs with their advisors' approval.

Superintendent Endorsement

The superintendent endorsement curriculum is designed to prepare individuals for licensure as a school superintendent (pre-K-12) as well as for other school district leadership positions; for the chief administrator position in Iowa's area education agencies (AEA) as well as other AEA leadership positions; and for leadership positions in state or federal departments of education and related agencies. The superintendent endorsement requires a total of 30 s.h. of credit.

Students in the endorsement program must have an Iowa administrator license. They obtain the superintendent endorsement (State of Iowa endorsement 171) upon completing the required Ed.S. course work and at least three years of principal experience.

School Curriculum and Assessment Policy

The interdisciplinary program trains graduate students to become school leaders who know how to use assessment information for accountability purposes and curriculum evaluation. See the Specialist in Education in this section of the Catalog.

Higher Education and Student Affairs

Advanced study in higher education and student affairs draws upon diverse perspectives from varied disciplines and professional fields to analyze critical issues and policies and their effects on students, faculty, administrators, staff, and other members of the higher education community. It also explores the complex interactive relationships among institutions of higher education, the external environment, and society at large.

The higher education and student affairs (HESA) program coalesces around a shared sense of responsibility to produce research and spark innovative thinking that addresses the contemporary challenges and persistent inequities permeating higher education. HESA offers educational leaders, scholars, and practitioners comprehensive expertise built from a range of intellectual traditions. Faculty have diverse philosophies, methods, disciplinary training, and personal backgrounds, ensuring students gain a deep understanding and interconnected view of the field.

Graduate degree programs in higher education and student affairs prepare professionals and scholar practitioners to serve as administrators, researchers, educators, and analysts in institutions of higher and postsecondary education and in related public and private agencies. The programs provide opportunities for concentrated study in student affairs administration; higher education policy and leadership; teaching, learning, and curriculum; and diversity, equity, and foundations of higher education. See the Master of ArtsSpecialist in Education, and the Doctor of Philosophy in this section of the Catalog.

Schools, Culture, and Society

Schools, culture, and society is an interdisciplinary area that enhances students' ability to analyze the influence of social, historical, and philosophical factors that frame contemporary issues in the formal social enterprise of education. See the Master of Arts and the Doctor of Philosophy in this section of the Catalog.

Educational Policy and Leadership Studies Courses

EPLS:1029 First-Year Seminar1 s.h.

Small discussion class taught by a faculty member; topics chosen by instructor; may include outside activities (e.g., films, lectures, performances, readings, visits to research facilities). Requirements: first- or second-semester standing.

EPLS:2098 The Student Affairs Profession3 s.h.

Introduction to field of student affairs in context of higher education; focus on foundations of profession, including a brief history of field, professional associations, institutional differences, professional and ethical standards, functional areas in higher education, student learning and developmental theory, overview of graduate preparation, and current topics.

EPLS:3000 Foundations of Education3 s.h.

Overview of American education, preschool through secondary; aims, history, philosophy of education; professional ethics, legal responsibilities; school curriculum, organization, finance, school law, political and social issues.

EPLS:4081 ePortfolio Design and Production1-2 s.h.

Experience producing an ePortfolio and uploading it to the internet; practical experience using digital tools, content and design related to ePortfolio production; experience using a web browser, accessing the internet, and using a digital camera or scanner. Requirements: able to perform basic computer functions and use a World Wide Web browser. Same as EALL:4081, EDTL:4081, PSQF:4081, RCE:4081.

EPLS:4110 Administration and Policy in Gifted Education2 s.h.

Policy, administrative, evaluation issues in developing and maintaining gifted programs in a school setting; participants develop gifted program and policies for a school; for school executives and coordinators of gifted programs.

EPLS:4111 Evaluation of Gifted Programs1 s.h.

Fundamentals of program evaluation essential for exemplary gifted programs.

EPLS:4113 Staff Development for Gifted Programs1 s.h.

Planning, content, and delivery of staff development regarding gifted students and their needs.

EPLS:4150 Leadership and Public Service I3 s.h.

Preparation for providing public service to a local community; leadership skills for effective mentoring of children in grades 6-10.

EPLS:4151 Leadership and Public Service II2 s.h.

Preparation to provide leadership and public service to a local community agency; being a leader and a public servant in the context of societal oppressions such as racism, sexism, able-bodyism; part of the human relations minor. Prerequisites: EPLS:4150.

EPLS:4180 Human Relations for the Classroom Teacher3 s.h.

Influence of social factors such as discrimination, diversity, equity, racism, sexism, and ethnic and socioeconomic pluralism on American schools and classrooms; for teacher education candidates. GE: Values and Culture.

EPLS:4200 Diversity and Inclusion in Athletics3 s.h.

Diversity and inclusion as major issues for coaches, sports managers, physical activity professionals, and athletic administration staff in their workplaces; define, discuss, and analyze effects of diversity and inclusion in the athletic organizational environment; experience of underrepresented groups in sport settings, covering differences of religion, race, ethnic origins, gender, sex, ability, appearance, and age; understanding power differences, based on diversity within an organizational environment, that help future leaders implement successful practices inclusive of all persons. Requirements: undergraduate standing and enrollment in interscholastic athletics/activities director certificate program.

EPLS:4240 Perspectives on Minority Education in the United Statesarr.

In-depth focus on one specific minoritized group, centering on the nature of their educational experience in the U.S.; may cover historical, cultural, legal, and sociological perspectives that have contributed to access, inclusion, policies, and legal realities; content may include PK-12, private, religious, and higher education settings.

EPLS:5090 Instructional Coaching for Teaching Excellence3 s.h.

Dynamics of coaching to improve K-12 classroom teaching; appropriate for aspiring teacher leaders. Requirements: admission to the online M.A. in teaching program.

EPLS:5100 Issues and Policies in Higher Education3 s.h.

Development of the idea of a university; selected functions, issues, policies of American higher education.

EPLS:5102 History of American Education3 s.h.

Purposes of public education, diversity, and control of schooling from a historical perspective; emphasis on conflicting interpretations of pivotal events and educational movements; connections between educational policies and larger historical developments.

EPLS:5123 History of Ethnic/Minority Education2-3 s.h.

Educational histories of American ethnic and minority groups; comprehensive understanding of American educational history, context for contemporary educational policy discussions.

EPLS:5126 Twentieth-Century Educational Movements2-3 s.h.

Current educational policy debates concerning diversity and equity, historical roots of these policies; historical context for 20th-century equal education opportunity movements.

EPLS:5130 Sociology of Education3 s.h.

Effects of school and school organization on educational outcomes; course-taking patterns and tracking, desegregation, differences in school sector; focus on entire span of student's academic career; examination of school and organizational effects at the primary, secondary, and postsecondary levels of education. Same as SOC:5130.

EPLS:5131 Race, Class, and Gender Inequalities in Education3 s.h.

Role of ascribed characteristics (e.g., race, class, gender) on educational opportunities and outcomes; achievement gaps, school desegregation, social and cultural capital, peer influence, family attributes, neighborhood influence, influence of significant others, course-taking patterns, and educational destinations. Same as SOC:5165.

EPLS:5134 Education and the World of Work2-3 s.h.

Relationship between education and work in individual and organizational behavior, and between educational and economic systems; economics, psychology, sociology, education.

EPLS:5142 Sociology of Higher Education3 s.h.

Sociological approach to study of higher education; issues of inequality and stratification in higher education; focus on relationship between higher education and larger economic and demographic processes; college access, college destinations, attainment, and returns to a college degree. Same as SOC:5680.

EPLS:5154 Education, Race, and Ethnicity2-3 s.h.

Role of education in ethnic and racial groups in contemporary and/or historical context.

EPLS:5156 Philosophies of Education2-3,5 s.h.

Principal educational philosophers and philosophies that have influenced Western education; emphasis on how philosophical ideas and conflicts have shaped the educational scene.

EPLS:5157 Ethics in Education3 s.h.

Major theories of the nature of ethical action and of value judgment; theoretical accounts related to the practical decision making contexts of teaching.

EPLS:5158 John Dewey and Education2-3 s.h.

Dewey's philosophy of instrumentalism, with emphasis on his theories of knowledge, valuation, aesthetics, especially as applied to educational theory and practice.

EPLS:5165 Introduction to Program and Project Evaluation3 s.h.

Skills and knowledge required for conducting evaluations of products, projects, and programs; recent scholarship on evaluation and project management. Same as PSQF:5165.

EPLS:5210 Education and Social Change2-3 s.h.

Role of educational institutions, in connection with political and economic structures, in the process of social change; illumination of theories of social change through case studies of educational systems in both less-developed and industrialized nations. Same as SOC:5810.

EPLS:5240 Topics in Educationarr.

Seminar for intensive study of one problem, issue, or work field.

EPLS:5245 The American Professoriate3 s.h.

Research on college and university faculty members; perspectives on faculty careers, values, beliefs, role in shared governance; tenure process and policies; issues unique to faculty members of color and women faculty members.

EPLS:5247 Multiculturalism in Higher Education3 s.h.

Theory and application of multicultural competency in higher education.

EPLS:5250 Introduction to Higher Education and Student Affairs3 s.h.

Foundations of student affairs work; overview of institutional cultures, legal issues, ethical principles, standards of practice in student affairs.

EPLS:5251 College Students and Their Environments3 s.h.

Characteristics of college students and issues they face; students' institutional, social, cultural environments; impact of environments on student learning, development.

EPLS:5252 Administration of Higher Education and Student Affairs3 s.h.

Administrative structures and processes in higher education settings. Requirements: higher education and student affairs major.

EPLS:5253 Research, Assessment, and Evaluation in Higher Education3 s.h.

Theories, practices, and issues relevant to assessment of student outcomes and institutional effectiveness in higher education; basic overview of research, assessment, and evaluation; elements of assessment design, including methods for data collection and analysis; relevant ethical and political dilemmas; practical assessment activities. Requirements: M.A. standing in higher education and student affairs program.

EPLS:5278 Helping Skills in Student Affairs Work3 s.h.

Development of ability to identify, understand, and intentionally apply the active attending and influencing skills; readings and class presentations.

EPLS:6201 Foundations of School Administration3 s.h.

Organization and administration of American public education; principles and concepts of leadership and organizations; socioeconomic, political, and professional factors relating to education and school administration.

EPLS:6206 Research Process and Design3 s.h.

Research process, with emphasis on fundamentals of experimental design, internal and external validity, correlational designs, and statistical inference.

EPLS:6209 Survey Research and Design3 s.h.

Survey design and implementation; writing and evaluation of survey questions; error in survey research; techniques to reduce error; sampling; postcollection processing of survey data. Prerequisites: EPLS:6206 or PSQF:4143. Same as PSQF:6209.

EPLS:6216 Finance in Higher Education3 s.h.

Theory, research, policy, and practice related to public and private funding of higher and postsecondary education.

EPLS:6217 Theory and Practice of Leadership2-3 s.h.

Theory-based literature and critiques of leadership as applied to educational institutions.

EPLS:6218 The Law and Higher Education3 s.h.

The role of law as it affects postsecondary institutions; analysis of case law in specific areas of concern to administrators, faculty, staff, students.

EPLS:6220 History of Higher Education3 s.h.

History of postsecondary education in the United States; emphasis on conflicting interpretations of pivotal developments; consideration of access, curriculum, student life, academic freedom, role of universities in society, and balance of teaching, research and service from a historical perspective.

EPLS:6221 The College Curriculum3 s.h.

Issues, principles, policies, and practices in college curriculum development; diverse philosophical, historical, cultural, social, psychological, political foundations of contemporary college curricula; perspectives on and models of college curriculum, related processes of teaching and learning; principles and practices that guide design and change of higher education curriculum.

EPLS:6222 Introduction to Educational Policy3 s.h.

Theoretical and technical approaches to analysis and evaluation of contemporary public policies.

EPLS:6224 Organizational Theory and Administrative Behavior3 s.h.

Theories and concepts of organizational behavior applied in structural, organizational, administrative contexts of American education.

EPLS:6225 Higher Education Policy3 s.h.

Overview of state level higher education structures and policies; research on state level policy processes.

EPLS:6226 Educational Management2-3 s.h.

Literature and research on management; emphasis on American education.

EPLS:6228 K-12 Education Finance and Policy3 s.h.

Emphasis on policy funding and finance for administration and management in education and other settings.

EPLS:6236 Administration of Students with Special Needs3 s.h.

Foundation for and skill practice in tasks performed by directors of special education and others administering to needs of special education students, and economically and socially deprived students; for prospective school administrative personnel. Same as EDTL:6936.

EPLS:6237 History of the Teaching Profession3 s.h.

History of public school teaching, and teachers' problematic professional status; teacher education in the 19th and 20th centuries; formation and activities of teacher unions in the 20th century.

EPLS:6238 Gender and Education in Historical Perspective3 s.h.

Gender in context of history of education in the United States; coeducation in common schools, academies, and high schools; women's arrival and experiences as college students; masculinity in higher education; single-sex versus coeducation; emphasis on conflicting historical interpretations. Same as GWSS:6238.

EPLS:6242 Research for Effective School Leaders3 s.h.

Fundamental language of contemporary research; identification and application of basic research components to contemporary educational leadership problems; applicability of research toward effective decision making.

EPLS:6260 Contemporary Management Strategies for the Pre-K-12 Principal3 s.h.

Leadership skills and management techniques for daily organization and operation of schools; emphasis on climate, communication, group processes, conflict resolution, curriculum management.

EPLS:6265 Standards-Based Education and Accountability3 s.h.

Standards-based education; academic content standards, K-12 articulation, alignment studies, use of standardized test results to evaluate academic programs.

EPLS:6266 Program Evaluation3 s.h.

Theoretical issues and considerations in evaluation of educational and social programs; evaluation design, methodology; metaevaluation; evaluation utilization. Same as PSQF:6265.

EPLS:6270 Policy and Politics3 s.h.

Current issues from academic journals, states, think tanks, consortia.

EPLS:6273 The College Student3 s.h.

Overview of theories, research, practices, and issues relevant to understanding students in institutions of higher education. Requirements: Ph.D. standing in Higher Education and Student Affairs program.

EPLS:6275 Diversity and Equity in Higher Education3 s.h.

Historical, contemporary, theoretical, and empirical aspects of diversity and equity in higher education; unique experiences of members of historically under-represented groups; challenges of transforming institutions to make them more responsive to the experiences of diverse groups.

EPLS:6285 School and Community Relationships3 s.h.

Community analysis, politics and education, power groups and influences, school issues and public responses, public relations strategies.

EPLS:6290 Master's Projectarr.

Research for the nonthesis program; topic approved by advisor.

EPLS:6293 Individualized Instructionarr.

Readings, special projects, and/or studies that reflect joint instructor/student interest.

EPLS:6298 Legal Aspects of School Personnel3 s.h.

Teacher and student: liability, negotiations, rights, privileges, responsibilities of school personnel; principles of law derived from court decisions; constitutional and statutory provisions; for teachers and administrators.

EPLS:6301 Professional Seminar I1 s.h.

Orientation to field; writing and academic support.

EPLS:6302 Professional Seminar in Student Affairs II1 s.h.

Working with groups in higher education.

EPLS:6303 Professional Seminar in Student Affairs III1 s.h.

Consulting, training, and curriculum development in student affairs.

EPLS:6304 Professional Seminar in Student Affairs IV1 s.h.

Professional identity, job search support.

EPLS:6305 Higher Education and Student Affairs Capstone3 s.h.

Completion of an applied project that synthesizes the full M.A. curriculum.

EPLS:6311 Seminar: Research Topic in Education2-3 s.h.

Topic submitted by students, faculty.

EPLS:6315 Orientation to the Superintendency3 s.h.

Leadership theory and research of the superintendent's role of increasing student achievement; personal goals for communication; ethics, integrity, flexibility, reflective, and collaborative leadership; expectations of the superintendent by the board of directors; defining one's role; developing an entry plan; dealing with social/emotional isolation of superintendency; and influences in the larger political, social, economic, legal, and cultural context.

EPLS:6317 Operational Leadership and Management1 s.h.

Managing fiscal and physical resources responsibly, efficiently, and effectively; effective communication of school operations; leadership and management of nutrition program, transportation program, facilities, construction; board policy, legal issues; state reporting, ethical decision-making; relationship building, problem solving amidst barriers and various stakeholder groups.

EPLS:6319 Human Resources Leadership2 s.h.

Leadership theory and research of the superintendent's role of aligning human resources practice and increasing student achievement; employment law; contract negotiations process/collective bargaining; contract maintenance; recruiting, selecting, developing, and retaining employees; working with labor unions and Public Employee Relations Board; special education law; Evaluator 2 Training. Requirements: Evaluator 1 Training.

EPLS:6321 Social Advocacy Summit1 s.h.

Summit format; challenges and opportunities in Iowa's K-12 schools with changing demographics; opportunity for K-12 school districts and higher education institutions to engage in conversation on how to meet the needs of students and local school districts.

EPLS:6323 School Finance2 s.h.

Manage fiscal and physical resources; communicate effectively with internal and external audiences regarding school operations; comply with state and federal mandates and local board policies; align educational programs, plans, actions, and resources with the district vision and goals.

EPLS:6325 Organizational and Educational Leadership2 s.h.

Facilitate connections of students and families to health and social services that support a focus on learning as a district level leader in a school district; collaboratively establish a culture that welcomes and honors families and community and seeks ways to engage them in students learning; AEA structure, compliance and regulatory functions including special education.

EPLS:6329 Legislative Summit1 s.h.

Collaborate with families and community members, respond to diverse community interests and needs, and mobilize community resources as a district level leader in a school district; work with legislators, build advocacy groups in a community, engage stakeholders, how to lobby legislators and meet with local senate and house representatives to participate in lobbying.

EPLS:6332 College Student Psychosocial and Identity Development3 s.h.

Theoretical models of psychosocial and identity development in college students; applications to student affairs work.

EPLS:6333 Practicum in Higher Education and Student Affairsarr.

Small-scale research projects; supervised experience in planning, design, management, analysis, reporting of research activities; assignments to current and personal faculty research projects; student assumes major responsibility.

EPLS:6334 College Student Learning, Cognitive, and Moral Development3 s.h.

Learning and development of college students; theoretical models of learning, cognitive development, moral development; applications to student affairs work.

EPLS:6336 Impact of College on Students3 s.h.

Introduction to literature; career and economic returns, educational attainment and persistence, values and attitudes, learning and cognitive development, college student theory, assessment and methodological issues of studying college outcomes. Recommendations: introductory graduate-level research design course.

EPLS:6370 Quantitative Methods for Policy Analysis3 s.h.

Methodological strategies for quantitative research; analysis of secondary data to investigate educational issues and policies; recoding variables, summation scaling and factor analysis, missing data, sample design and survey estimation, model building; implementation of linear and binary regression, regression diagnostics; hands-on experience conducting statistical analysis of social data. Prerequisites: PSQF:4143 and PSQF:6243.

EPLS:6381 Analysis and Appraisal of Curriculum3 s.h.

Comprehensive investigation of systematic procedures and resources for identifying and evaluating essential features and constituent elements of a given school district's curricular offering; state and federal requirements of the curricular program; for persons in administration, curriculum, and supervision programs or positions.

EPLS:6383 Supervision and Evaluation3 s.h.

Data collection and management skills; data-driven leadership; coaching and feedback techniques; teacher quality legislation; research and best practice regarding teacher evaluation, supervision; teaching standards.

EPLS:6400 Early Childhood Leadership Clinical3 s.h.

Classroom instruction and supervised experience with problems in early childhood educational administration; organization, planning, evaluation, decision making.

EPLS:6401 Elementary Leadership Clinical3 s.h.

Supervised experience working with problems in educational administration, including organization, planning, evaluation, decision making; individual project in a school setting.

EPLS:6402 Secondary Leadership Clinical3 s.h.

Supervised experience working with problems in educational administration, including organization, planning, evaluation, decision making; individual project in a school setting.

EPLS:6403 Special Education Leadership Clinical3 s.h.

Supervised experience working with problems in educational administration, including organization, planning, evaluation, decision making; individual project in a school setting.

EPLS:6404 Central Administration Clinical3 s.h.

Supervised experience working with problems in educational administration, including organization, planning, evaluation, decision making; individual project in a school setting.

EPLS:6405 Superintendent Entry Plan and Portfolio Development1 s.h.

Creating an effective entry plan, and where applicable, a professional portfolio as part of the series of clinical expectations for the superintendent preparation program; development of plan helps to create prior mutual expectation among the superintendent, board, staff, and community. Requirements: in final semester of superintendent endorsement program.

EPLS:6415 Orientation to the Superintendency: Clinical2 s.h.

Clinical experience aligned with course topics and assignments in a K-12 school or other educational organization; development of a clinical plan with the guidance of a university professor and local school district mentor based on course requirements, career goals, and interests.

EPLS:6417 Operational Leadership Clinical1 s.h.

Clinical experience aligned with course topics and assignments in the operational leadership course; completion of clinical in a K-12 school or other appropriate educational organization; development of a clinical plan based on course requirements, career goals, and student interests with guidance from a university professor and local school district mentor.

EPLS:6419 Human Resources Leadership Clinical2 s.h.

Clinical experience aligned with course topics and assignments in the human resources leadership course; completion of clinical in a K-12 school or other appropriate educational organization; development of a clinical plan based on course requirements, career goals, and student interests with guidance from a university professor and local school district mentor.

EPLS:6425 Organizational and Educational Leadership Clinical1 s.h.

Clinical experience aligned with course topics and assignments in the organizational and educational leadership course; completion of clinical in a K-12 school or other appropriate educational organization; development of a clinical plan based on course requirements, career goals, and student interests with guidance from a university professor and local school district mentor.

EPLS:7373 Qualitative Research Design and Methods3 s.h.

Theory and practice of qualitative research design and methodology; exploratory field experience in collection and analysis of data; individual and focus group interviews, participant observation. Requirements: Ph.D. standing.

EPLS:7380 Practicum in College Teachingarr.

Supervised college teaching experience in courses related to major academic areas; collaboration with faculty course instructors.

EPLS:7385 Teaching and Learning in Higher Education3 s.h.

Current theoretical and empirical literature on teaching and learning in higher education; focus on development of effective teaching practice. Same as EDTL:7385, GRAD:7385, PSQF:7385, RCE:7385.

EPLS:7392 Mixed Methods Research3 s.h.

Introduction to mixed methods research in education; knowledge and skills necessary to conduct mixed methods study; history and language of mixed methods research; identification and processing arguments for and against mixed methods research; extend understanding of research in education; how to assess strengths and weaknesses of published mixed methods studies; investigation of one or more mixed methods research designs in depth; application of mixed methods research design to a research proposal. Prerequisites: EALL:5150. Requirements: formal introduction to quantitative and qualitative research methods, and familiarity with basic steps of research process. Recommendations: direct experience conducting research studies not required. Same as EDTL:7410.

EPLS:7395 Educational Specialist Researcharr.

Individual instruction in the design, research, and writing of a research project of significant quality for upper-level graduate work.

EPLS:7432 Multicultural Initiatives3 s.h.

Impact of culture, race, ethnicity, and intersection of identity in higher education, student affairs, and community agency settings; knowledge, skills, and competencies needed by teachers, student affairs professionals, social workers, counselors, and educational administrators to facilitate individual empowerment through relationships; focus on different ways to design multicultural initiatives to various professional work settings to promote diversity. Requirements: Ph.D. standing or advanced-level M.A. standing. Recommendations: introductory course on issues of race, culture, gender and/or any course on sociopolitical issues or structural oppression strongly recommended.

EPLS:7433 Current Issues in Higher Education and Student Affairs3 s.h.

Current issues related to higher education; opportunity to clarify perspectives; review of literature in a particular area of interest; readings, class discussions, independent research, consultations with professionals in the field, student presentations. Requirements: higher education and student affairs Ph.D. standing.

EPLS:7444 Advanced Practicum in Student Affairsarr.

Supervised work experience in student affairs settings.

EPLS:7493 Ph.D. Thesisarr.

Supervision of research, design, and writing of Ph.D. thesis; individual instruction.