Undergraduate major: social work (B.A.)
Undergraduate minor: social work
Graduate degrees: M.S.W.; Ph.D. in social work
Faculty: https://clas.uiowa.edu/socialwork/people/faculty
Website: https://clas.uiowa.edu/socialwork/

The School of Social Work's mission is to develop, disseminate, and integrate excellent and compelling research-based knowledge, practice, and policy, particularly that related to children, families, and older adults. The school operates from strengths-based perspectives and systems perspectives. It educates its graduates to be culturally competent scholars and practitioners who are committed to social justice and social work values and ethics, and who are prepared to serve in and have a positive impact on a broad range of family-centered and community-based practice settings throughout the State of Iowa and beyond.

The school provides a program of professional training accredited by the Council on Social Work Education at the baccalaureate and master's degree levels, aimed at developing effective intervention in multiple systems and using professional social work values and ethics. It also offers a Ph.D. program, which prepares students to conduct research that contributes to the knowledge base of social work, to be leaders in setting policy and practice, and to teach in colleges and universities. In addition, the School of Social Work administers the programs listed below.

Certificate and Minor in Aging Studies

The School of Social Work administers the Aging Studies Program, which offers a certificate for undergraduate and graduate students and a minor for undergraduates; see Aging Studies in the Catalog.

Certificate in Critical Cultural Competence

The School of Social Work administers the undergraduate certificate program in critical cultural competence; see Critical Cultural Competence in the Catalog.

Projects, Seminars

Students may become involved in special projects such as the National Resource Center for Family-Centered Practice and the School of Social Work's programs in gerontology and in end-of-life care.

The school also offers students the opportunity to participate in travel/study seminars.

Continuing Education

Nondegree students may enroll in selected courses. Students who complete continuing education work and later enroll in a degree program may be able to apply a limited amount of their continuing education work toward their degree requirements; applicable credit is determined by the School of Social Work.

Undergraduate Programs of Study

Major

Minor

Graduate Programs of Study

Majors

Social Work Courses

SSW:1000 First-Year Seminar1-2 s.h.

Small discussion class taught by a faculty member; topics chosen by instructor; may include outside activities (e.g., films, lectures, performances, readings, visits to research facilities). Requirements: first- or second-semester standing.

SSW:1022 Social Justice and Social Welfare in the United States3 s.h.

Historical development of social welfare and social justice in the United States; individual values and ethics; role and responsibilities of enhancing society; contemporary practice to address social injustices including poverty, discrimination, various forms of violence; small group discussions and debates of various issues to allow for an exchange of diverse views and perspectives; volunteer work. GE: Values, Society, and Diversity. Same as SOC:1022.

SSW:1800 Basic Aspects of Aging3 s.h.

Social, psychological, and biological aspects; demographics of aging, health, economic issues, primary relationships, social services. GE: Social Sciences. Same as ASP:1800, CSD:1800, NURS:1800, TR:1800.

SSW:2042 Intercultural Communication3 s.h.

Culture defined as a system of taken-for-granted assumptions about the world that influence how people think and act; cultural differences that produce challenges and opportunities for understanding and communication; those differences from several theoretical perspectives; opportunities to examine culture and cultural differences in practical, experience-driven ways. Same as COMM:2042, IS:2042.

SSW:2222 Introduction to Social Work4 s.h.

Social welfare as a social institution; settings, methodologies of social work, practice; profession of social work; historical development of American social welfare, social work; a minimum of 45 hours volunteer work. Requirements: sophomore or higher standing.

SSW:3135 Global Aging3 s.h.

Demographic factors that contribute to the world wide phenomena of population aging in context of WHO Active Aging and the United Nation's Principles for Older Persons frameworks. Same as ASP:3135, GHS:3050.

SSW:3187 Continuing Education: Individual Studyarr.

Project related to student interest carried out under direction of faculty member. Requirements: individual study contract.

SSW:3191 Individual Studyarr.

Project related to student interest carried out under direction of faculty member.

SSW:3500 Nonprofit Organizational Effectiveness I3 s.h.

Operational and financial aspects of nonprofit management; mission and governance of organization; strategic planning for effective management, including finance, budget, income generation, fund-raising. Same as ENTR:3595, MGMT:3500, MUSM:3500, NURS:3595, RELS:3700.

SSW:3501 Introduction to Nursing Homes3 s.h.

Overview of nursing home roles in context of long-term care system, characteristics of nursing home residents. Same as ASP:3501.

SSW:3585 Travel/Study Seminararr.

Opportunity for cross-cultural learning through U.S. or international travel; focus on social welfare issues. Prerequisites: SSW:4843.

SSW:3600 Nonprofit Organizational Effectiveness II3 s.h.

Qualities for leadership of nonprofit organizations, including relationships with staff and volunteers; relationship of nonprofit and outside world; marketing, public relations, advocacy strategies for nonprofits. Same as MGMT:3600, NURS:3600, RELS:3701.

SSW:3712 Human Sexuality, Diversity, and Society1-3 s.h.

Physiological, psychological aspects; parameters defined by students, instructor. Same as NURS:3712.

SSW:3729 Substance Use and Abuse3 s.h.

Chemical dependency for helping professions; etiological, physiological, psychological, legal, sociological aspects; treatment methods.

SSW:3753 Programs and Services for Aging Adults3 s.h.

Major gerontological programs and services, practitioners' need for basic aging-practice competence; aging network; income, employment, health maintenance programs; continuum of care (preventive and well-elderly services, in-home services, community-based services, institutional care); assessment; major elder health issues, informal care; end-of-life care. Same as ASP:3753.

SSW:3785 Social Policy and the Elderly3 s.h.

Public social policies, their affect on well-being of elderly, including women and minorities; U.S. and other nations' policies. Requirements: an introductory course on aging and junior or higher standing. Same as ASP:3785.

SSW:3786 Death/Dying: Issues Across the Life Span3-4 s.h.

Introduction to death and dying; historical, cultural, societal, personal perspectives. Same as ASP:3786.

SSW:3796 Family Violence2-3 s.h.

Child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, elder abuse; causes, policy aspects, identification, reporting, treatment, prevention.

SSW:3797 Child Welfare Policy and Practice3 s.h.

Public and private child welfare practice and organizations in the United States; historical and legal aspects, co-occurring issues, foster care, adoption, family preservation.

SSW:3799 Selected Aspects of Social Work and Social Welfarearr.

Human behavior, practice, social welfare policy.

SSW:3840 Human Behavior in the Social Environment3-4 s.h.

Behavior and development in context of social, ecological systems and human diversity; overview of biopsychosocial dimensions, individual behavior, and development throughout lifespan; contexts of diverse family, group, community, organization, and cultural systems.

SSW:3841 Fundamentals of Social Work Practice3 s.h.

Professional practice: functions, roles, skills, conceptual frameworks, values, ethics; focus on integrated approach to practice, including assessment, intervention, evaluation of interventions, termination with individuals, families, groups; emphasis on empirically based practice. Corequisites: SSW:3840, if not taken as a prerequisite. Requirements: admission to social work B.A. program.

SSW:3842 Interpersonal Skills Laboratory2 s.h.

Practice of interpersonal skills required in the helping relationship. Corequisites: SSW:3841, if not taken as a prerequisite. Requirements: admission to social work B.A. program.

SSW:3844 Introduction to Social Work Research4 s.h.

Scientific approach to knowledge building, with emphasis on critical use of research; quantitative and qualitative methods, evaluation of practice, computerized data analysis, ethics and diversity in social work research. Requirements: admission to social work B.A. program.

SSW:3845 Social Work Processes4 s.h.

Context of practice examined to understand structural factors that affect clients and communities; culturally competent practice using empowerment perspective. Corequisites: SW:3840, if not taken as a prerequisite. Requirements: admission to social work B.A. program.

SSW:3847 Discrimination, Oppression, and Diversity3 s.h.

Theoretical and historical perspectives on racism, sexism, other forms of discrimination; applications to social work, culturally competent practice, change strategies. Requirements: admission to social work B.A. or M.S.W. program.

SSW:3904 Human Services Administration2 s.h.

Effects of organizational structures/processes on individual performance; models of management, communication patterns, leadership styles; skill in technical writing, decision making, personnel and financial management, applied professional ethics. Requirements: completion of foundation courses.

SSW:4100 Social Work in the Criminal Justice System3 s.h.

How social work practice intersects with different aspects of the criminal justice system; focus on integrating social work values into criminal justice field; social work's responsibility to address social justice problems (e.g., mental illness, racial disparity, gender, human rights) within criminal justice system; critical examination of past and present practices in criminal justice and implications for social work practice and policy when working with individuals in criminal justice system.

SSW:4130 Family Development Specialist Model3 s.h.

Use of family development specialist model of family-centered practice to facilitate improved family functioning, economic independence; relationship building, systems theory, family-centered case management, conflict management, empowerment strategies. Requirements: completion of family development specialist certification course.

SSW:4155 Treatment of Substance Use and Co-Occurring Disorders3 s.h.

Treatment of individuals presenting substance related issues (abuse, dependency, co-occurring disorders); etiological, physiological, psychological, legal, and sociological aspects; evaluation of current research and direct application of contemporary treatment modalities to client situations encountered as helping professionals. Recommendations: introductory course in substance abuse.

SSW:4188 Continuing Education: Honorsarr.

Supervised individual research. Requirements: honors standing.

SSW:4189 Field Experience Seminar1 s.h.

Opportunity for students to recount their experiences from generalist practice in agencies; application of knowledge, skills, and values of culturally competent social work. Corequisites: SSW:4193. Requirements: completion of course work in the major.

SSW:4190 Aging Studies Internship3 s.h.

Opportunities for students in various disciplines to relate their areas of study to older adults and aging; interdisciplinary relationships, approaches to meeting needs of older adults. Same as ASP:4190.

SSW:4192 Honors in Social Workarr.

Supervised individual research. Requirements: honors standing.

SSW:4193 Field Experiencearr.

Supervised experience in selected social welfare organizations; application of knowledge and skill common to generalist practice in an agency setting. Corequisites: SSW:4189. Requirements: completion of course work in the major and social work senior standing.

SSW:4216 Group Facilitation in Human Sexuality0-3 s.h.

Principles of group dynamics, group process; leadership skills for small, task-oriented discussion groups on human sexuality. Prerequisites: SSW:3712. Same as NURS:4216.

SSW:4700 Motivational Interviewing in Diverse Application3 s.h.

Application of motivational interviewing (MI) skills, as a collaborative process and communication style, while working with individuals presenting with ambivalence to change; MI skills are used to guide across the change process ("Stages of Change") by evoking the intrinsic motivation for change; includes application to diverse populations (e.g., cultural groups, veterans, adolescents) and psychological issues individuals may exhibit.

SSW:4843 Social Welfare Policy and Practice3 s.h.

Basic social welfare policies and programs; economic, social, ideological, and political conditions that have influenced formation and implementation of social policy, current structure of major social welfare policies.

SSW:5194 Social Work Practice in Health Care Settings2 s.h.

Introduction to organization, provision of social work services in health care settings; practice issues such as models of intervention, ethical questions, impact of cultural diversity on health care.

SSW:5200 Grief Work with Individuals and Families2-3 s.h.

Complexity of grief and its multifaceted impact on family systems; utilizing grief theories, including Worden's Tasks of Mourning, ambiguous loss theory, several family systems models; examination of multi-generational dynamics that affect how we learn to grieve, how we experience grief, and how we live after a loss; acknowledged and unacknowledged grief and loss; generational family dynamics; difficulties and strengths passed from one generation to the next; assessing grief at individual, family, group, and community levels; how loss can affect personal well-being and professional practice, particularly when working with an interdisciplinary team. Requirements: social work graduate standing.

SSW:5219 Aging and the Family2-3 s.h.

Research related to aging and the family; intergenerational relations, marital status in later life, diversity of older families, caregiving, elder abuse, policy issues. Same as ASP:5219.

SSW:5240 Trauma Informed Family Practice3 s.h.

Theory, knowledge, and skills informing evidence-based assessment and intervention for traumatized children and adolescents in child welfare system, including those exposed to abuse, neglect, witnessing interpersonal crime (e.g., domestic violence, community violence); family events within their ecological context, various family forms, cultural patterns; controversial issues in child welfare, conclusions based on scholarly research, presentation of conclusions in professional oral and written form.

SSW:5254 Introductory Seminar: End-Of-Life Services in Rural Communities2-3 s.h.

Basic principles of hospice and palliative care, rural service delivery, community assessment.

SSW:6145 Organization and Community Practice3 s.h.

Models that underlie theories of organization, community practice; principles of macro social work and skill development in relationship building, needs assessment, decision making, planning, implementing, ethics, program and self-evaluation. Requirements: admission to M.S.W. program.

SSW:6146 Computer Laboratory1 s.h.

Use of microcomputers in social work practice; user skill, software for a variety of applications in social service settings. Requirements: admission to M.S.W. program.

SSW:6148 Research Practice I3 s.h.

Knowledge and skills for evaluating practice and carrying out social work research; formulation of research questions; research design and methodology; sampling techniques; protection of human subjects; descriptive statistics; computerized data analysis. Requirements: admission to M.S.W. program.

SSW:6150 Social Work Practice with Individuals, Families, and Groups3 s.h.

Models and underlying theories of empirically based direct social work practice; emphasis on an ecosystem strengths perspective; phases of helping relationship, strengths-based assessment, change process in interpersonal helping relationships. Prerequisites: SSW:3840. Requirements: admission to M.S.W. program; for students who have completed 60 s.h., concurrent enrollment in SSW:6151, SSW:6290, and SSW:6291.

SSW:6151 Social Work Practice Skills Laboratory2 s.h.

Interpersonal skills practice in the helping relationship; small-group format. Corequisites: SSW:6150 and SSW:6290 and SSW:6291, if not taken as prerequisites. Requirements: admission to M.S.W. program.

SSW:6220 Family Law3 s.h.

Legal systems, rights, processes related to families; marriage, divorce, custody, protective services, reproductive rights, adoption, commitment, delinquency, education, poverty, discrimination; roles of lawyers, social workers in legal system. Prerequisites: SSW:4843.

SSW:6224 Spirituality and Ethics in Social Work2-3 s.h.

Knowledge, values, and skills that provide a framework for spiritually sensitive social work practice; preparation for responding competently and ethically to diverse spiritual perspectives, for recognizing and reflecting on one's own spiritual beliefs, and for identifying appropriate ways to apply personal beliefs to practice with varied populations while safeguarding client autonomy and self-determination.

SSW:6228 Theories of Personality and Psychopathology2 s.h.

Theories and their relevance to social work practice with diverse populations. Prerequisites: SSW:3840. Requirements: social work graduate standing.

SSW:6229 Working with Groups2 s.h.

Theory and practice of group work, group process, leadership styles and skills; fundamental theory, skills necessary to form and facilitate a small group. Requirements: completion of foundation courses.

SSW:6232 Therapy with Couples2 s.h.

Married and other couples as social systems; theories of functional, dysfunctional systems; techniques of intervention. Requirements: completion of foundation courses.

SSW:6233 School Social Work Practice2 s.h.

School as a social institution; activities of school social worker; theoretical, practice issues; current issues in field.

SSW:6234 Social Work Practice and Use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders3 s.h.

Major categories of psychopathology and the DSM-5 system of classification; the use of the DSM-5 approach to diagnosis allows one to consider all aspects of an individual's behavior and presentation of symptoms; included in the the DSM is information about effects of culture, developmental stage, and gender on the presentation of mental disorders.

SSW:6236 Interventions with Individuals2 s.h.

Comparison of two or more intervention theories and approaches used in social work practice with individuals; attention to diverse populations and across life span. Requirements: completion of foundation courses.

SSW:6237 Social Work Practice with Children, Youth, and Families2 s.h.

Preparation for practice in child welfare, family service agencies; family life cycle, child development, child maltreatment, problems of adolescence, social services for families and children, legal issues. Requirements: completion of foundation courses.

SSW:6238 Introduction to Play Therapy2 s.h.

Major theories and techniques of play therapy, relevance to social work practice.

SSW:6247 Nonprofit Organizational Effectiveness I3 s.h.

Operational and financing aspects of nonprofit management; mission and governance of organization; strategic planning for effective management, including finance, budget, income generation, fund-raising. Same as HMP:6360, LAW:8751, MGMT:9150, RELS:6070, SPST:6010, URP:6278.

SSW:6248 Nonprofit Organizational Effectiveness II3 s.h.

Qualities for leadership of nonprofit organizations, including relationships with staff and volunteers; relationship of nonprofit and outside world; marketing, public relations, advocacy strategies for nonprofits. Requirements: for LAW:8752 -- LAW:8751; for HMP:6365 -- HMP:6360 or MGMT:9150. Same as HMP:6365, LAW:8752, MGMT:9160, RELS:6075, SPST:6020, URP:6279.

SSW:6281 Social Work Practice: Selected Aspectsarr.

Topics not covered in another course; diversity, social justice and ethics issues related to a social work practice area.

SSW:6282 Grant Writing1-2 s.h.

Same as URP:6282.

SSW:6290 Foundation Practicum in Social Work3 s.h.

Generalist practice experience with individuals, families, small groups, organizations, communities; communication skills, change process, professional values and ethics applied at multiple system levels; students evaluate their own practice using a learning contract in an agency setting. Corequisites: SSW:3840, SSW:3847, SSW:4843, SSW:6145, SSW:6146, SSW:6150, SSW:6151, and SSW:6291; if not taken as prerequisites. Requirements: admission to M.S.W. program.

SSW:6291 Foundation Practicum Seminar1 s.h.

Integration of academic, experiential learning; self-assessment, peer feedback to promote model of professional accountability. Corequisites: SSW:3840, SSW:3847, SSW:4843, SSW:6145, SSW:6146, SSW:6150, SSW:6151, and SSW:6290; if not taken as prerequisites. Requirements: admission to M.S.W. program.

SSW:7000 Seminar for Accelerated Advanced Standing Program3 s.h.

Preparation for advanced micro and macro SSW course work; builds on foundation knowledge students obtained about working with individuals, group, families, communities, and organizations at the undergraduate level by introducing them to advanced theory and practice models seen in graduate level courses and practice situations. Requirements: admission to accelerated advanced standing M.S.W. program.

SSW:7250 Family-Centered Theory and Practice I3 s.h.

Theoretical bases for family-centered practice; comparison and analysis; skill development in analyzing problem situations, implementing change strategies. Requirements: completion of M.S.W. foundation courses.

SSW:7251 Family-Centered Theory and Practice II3 s.h.

Techniques for assessment, intervention in family-centered practice; evaluation of practice; theoretical and clinical bases for intervention. Prerequisites: SSW:7250.

SSW:7252 Advanced Social Policy for Family Practice3 s.h.

Systematic basis for examining social, economic, and political factors that influence formation of social policies; social policy implementation, impact of social policies on vulnerable individuals and families. Requirements: completion of M.S.W. foundation courses.

SSW:7255 Integrative Seminar in End-of-Life Care1 s.h.

Integration of students' knowledge, skills, and values for practice in end-of-life care and bereavement; application to case studies and advanced practicum setting. Corequisites: SSW:7292 or SSW:7295. Requirements: admission to end-of-life care area.

SSW:7260 Integrated Social Work Theory and Practice I3 s.h.

Theories, skill development, evaluation, ethical issues in integrated social work practice; intermediate group work for culturally competent intervention; small task groups. Requirements: completion of foundation courses.

SSW:7261 Integrated Social Work Theory and Practice II3 s.h.

Continuation of SSW:7260; theories, skills evaluation, ethical issues; advanced group work for culturally competent intervention; case management, program development, funding evaluation, large task groups.

SSW:7262 Advanced Social Policy for Integrated Practice3 s.h.

Systematic basis for critical examination of social, economic, and political factors that influence formation of social policies; social policy implementation, impact of social policies on vulnerable populations, service providers, communities. Requirements: completion of M.S.W. foundation courses.

SSW:7268 Continuing Education: Individual Studyarr.

Project related to student interest; directed by faculty member. Requirements: completion of course contract.

SSW:7269 Continuing Education: Thesisarr.

Thesis research project.

SSW:7270 Research Practice II2-3 s.h.

Research project relevant to social work practice that builds on knowledge and skills developed in SSW:6148; data analysis, report of results; ethical principles applied to research. Prerequisites: SSW:6148. Requirements: admission to M.S.W. program.

SSW:7271 Individual Studyarr.

Project related to student interest; directed by faculty member.

SSW:7272 Thesisarr.

SSW:7292 Advanced Practicum in Family-Centered Practice I and IIarr.

Family-centered practice theory and skills implemented in interventions with individuals, families; two semester field course. Corequisites: SSW:7250, SSW:7251, SSW:7252, and SSW:7270; if not taken as prerequisites. Requirements: completion of M.S.W. foundation courses, and concurrent enrollment in SSW:7293 or SSW:7294.

SSW:7293 Advanced Practicum Seminar in Family-Centered Practice I1 s.h.

Two-semester field course; family-centered practice theory and skills implemented in interventions with individuals, families. Corequisites: SSW:7292. Requirements: completion of M.S.W. foundation courses.

SSW:7294 Advanced Practicum Seminar in Family-Centered Practice II1 s.h.

Continuation of SSW:7293. Prerequisites: SSW:7293. Corequisites: SSW:7292.

SSW:7295 Advanced Practicum in Integrated Practicearr.

Integrated social work theories and interventions implemented in work with individuals, families, organizations, formal and informal networks; two semester field course. Corequisites: SSW:7260, SSW:7261, SSW:7262, and SSW:7270; if not taken as prerequisites. Requirements: completion of M.S.W. foundation courses; for fall semester -- concurrent enrollment in SSW:7297 or SSW:7298.

SSW:7296 Advanced Practicum in School Social Workarr.

Field course; social work theories and interventions implemented in schools. Corequisites: SSW:7250 or SSW:7260, SSW:7251 or SSW:7261, and SSW:7252 or SSW:7262; if not taken as prerequisites. Requirements: completion of M.S.W. foundation courses.

SSW:7297 Advanced Practicum Seminar in Integrated Practice I1 s.h.

Two-semester course; social work knowledge, skills, values, and professional identity integrated in context of advanced practice and direct multisystemic interventions. Corequisites: SSW:7295 or SSW:7296.

SSW:7298 Advanced Practicum Seminar in Integrated Practice II1 s.h.

Continuation of SSW:7297. Prerequisites: SSW:7297. Corequisites: SSW:7295 or SSW:7296.

SSW:7800 Social Work Proseminar1 s.h.

Orientation for new Ph.D. students to program and degree requirements; how to formulate research questions; introduction to faculty research and interests. Requirements: admission to social work doctoral program.

SSW:7801 Knowledge Building in Social Work Practice3 s.h.

Epistemology of social work practice theories, importance for knowledge building; practice theories of personal and interpersonal change, family life cycle development, empowerment.

SSW:7803 Social Work Research Practicum1-4 s.h.

Student work with faculty on various phases of research process including research design, measurement, sampling, data collection, data analysis, human subjects review, and writing for publication. Requirements: admission to social work doctoral program.

SSW:7804 Thesis Writing Seminar2-3 s.h.

Writing a thesis and an argument; synthesizing literature and justifying methods; development of scientific communication skills; defending ideas at proposal hearing and thesis defense.

SSW:7806 Teaching Practicum1-2 s.h.

Development of knowledge, skills, and values needed to become effective, culturally competent social work educators through an applied teaching experience; faculty mentors provide ongoing instruction on how to teach and assess student learning. Requirements: admission to social work doctoral program, and concurrent enrollment in or completion of teaching seminar.

SSW:7807 Introduction to College Teaching for Social Workers1 s.h.

Development of knowledge and skills needed to become effective, culturally competent educators; topics may include theories of adult learning, course design, creating a learning culture that is inclusive, instructional strategies, accreditation processes, and writing a teaching philosophy.

SSW:7815 Seminar: Human Service Organizations3 s.h.

Theories of organizations and applying theory to research within and about human services organizations; range of theories and their application to problems of conducting organizational research from Weber’s "bureaucracy" to contemporary "learning organization" popularized by Senge; organizational culture and climate, interorganizational networks, supervision and turnover, gender and diversity in relation to organizational research; students lead sessions and facilitate discussion of critical concepts and readings.

SSW:7816 Psychological Trauma, Trauma-Informed Practice, and Trauma Research3 s.h.

Theory related to psychological trauma, trauma-informed practice, and trauma research; origins of psychological trauma; history and development of trauma theories; trauma-related mental health disorders; trauma-sensitive/trauma-informed practice; challenges associated with applying and testing theory in direct practice and research.

SSW:7830 Ph.D. Dissertationarr.

Ongoing and substantial feedback to doctoral candidates on development and defense of dissertation. Prerequisites: SSW:7800 and SSW:7801 and SSW:7803 and SSW:7806 and SSW:7807. Requirements: submission of comprehensive exam.